Remote Teaching: Using Mobile Devices to Teach Outside of
Researcher(s): Stephen Baldridge, Ph.D., LMSW, assistant professor of social work and director of B.S.S.W. program
This study will explore the use of mobile technology in remote teaching, giving professors the ability to teach and instruct students via the mobile device while not in the traditional classroom setting. This study will utilize a quasi-experimental design between separate sections of no less than three classes. Three sections will be taught utilizing extensive remote teaching activities (i.e. sending students out of the classroom to experience different activities and blogging/podcasting about them remotely on their device, conducting “scavenger hunts” using mobile devices for instruction, using HeadsUp to facilitate group work while the professor is not physically present), while the other three sections will be taught identical course materials using traditional face-to-face methods. Measurement will consist of a pre-test/post-test design to compare student comprehension, retention of, and interest in course materials.
Teaching class remotely with the use of mobile devices (professor and students not face-to-face) will yield no significant difference in regards to comprehension, retention, and student interest compared to traditional face-to-face instruction.
The learning outcomes for those utilizing mobile devices and remote teaching pedagogy were significantly higher than their traditionally instructed counterparts. Students taught remotely demonstrated a better grasp of course content than those taught via traditional methods.
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Learning Mathematics: It's at your Fingertips
Researcher(s): Phyllis Bolin, Ph.D.
This project is designed as evaluative research to determine the effectiveness of the use of mobile learning activities on student learning in two different mathematics content classes for preservice teaching majors--one is primarily elementary and special education majors and the other is secondary mathematics teaching majors. This will include a systematic investigation of the impact on learning through enhanced reasoning, questioning, and discussion of mathematical ideas. Assessment of the impact of integration of mobile learning devices in the learning environment will be examined and measured in terms of student learning outcomes for critical thinking and problem solving. Strategies for guiding and encouraging class discussion will include, but are not limited to the following:
- Use of electronic textbooks on iPad that enable insertion of notes and links to websites.
- Use of iPad to provide a common learning device that students are able to personalize for specific learning needs.
- Use of daily mobile questioning at beginning of each class to generate and foster class discussion and engagement.
- Use of mobile learning devices to assess daily formative assessments to adjust and adapt learning activities.
Assessment of the strategies will include a quantitative evaluation of student learning outcomes on tests and quizzes, frequency analysis of course blog data and email; and qualitative evaluation of questions added to Student Opinions of Instructors Surveys, analysis of weekly student journal entries, and course blog data. The instructor will keep a journal describing and recording details of class discussions and class activities that contributed to or distracted from the classroom learning.
The use of an interactive electronic textbook that can be personalized will result in increased student reading and independent study so that students are better prepared for class and assessments. Daily use of classroom response systems will foster increased reasoning, questioning, and discussion during class resulting in improved student learning outcomes and student satisfaction.
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Assessing Video: Assisted Teacher Reflection
Researcher(s): Sheila Delony, Ph.D.
The teacher candidates in two sections of READ 460, a field based course, will write reflections each week following reading lessons they will teach to small groups of elementary students. The first week, they will all write reflections without the aid of video in order to establish a baseline of the content and quality of their reflections. The candidates will also complete surveys regarding their reflection experiences. The second week, they will video their lessons and will write reflections after viewing the video. Again, they will complete a survey regarding their reflection experiences. This pattern of alternating reflection procedures will continue for four to six weeks (depending on the needs of the public school setting). The candidates' written reflections and small group lessons will be graded each week. A combination of content analysis of the reflections, survey results, grades on the lessons, and grades on written reflections will be analyzed to determine the impact of using video to aid reflection and professional development.
Teacher candidates' use of iPod touch or iPhone to video small group lessons will change the quality of their reflections when compared to reflections completed without the use of video and will result in improvement of teaching quality.
Impact of Augmented Reality on an Art Students Perception of Design
Researcher(s): Kenny Jones, M.F.A.
The focus and comparison groups will be two separate sections of Two-Dimensional Design and/or Three-Dimensional Design courses. The focus group will be required to design, for a grade, an AR interface simulation (AR Sim) that would envision information related to Jack Maxwell’s sculpture site Jacob’s Dream. Content and media will be kept as close as possible in both sections, save for the AR Sim component in the focus group. The focus group will be decided by random selection. Both the comparison group and focus group will be required to write a four to eight page in-class essay – normal test-taking guidelines will be enforced. The essay will be based on questions related to describing the visual design characteristics of two artifacts, projected in-class during the essay sessions. This essay will be administered twice during the semester, once at midterm as a pre-experiment measurement and a post-experiment measurement, given as the final.
Each essay will analyze the design forms of two artifacts, one image serves as a near transfer artifact and the other functions as a far transfer artifact - near transfer in that the image was of the same sculpture that the students were designing for in the project’s experiment. The far transfer artifact will not be shown or discussed at any time during the semester and will be an older artwork done in a medium different than that of Jacob’s Dream. Each essay measurement will have the same near transfer artifact, but the far transfer artifact will change with each measurement.
From these essays, the number of design terms the student reported seeing will be counted. The assumption is that each use of a distinct descriptive visual design term will be indicative of how well the student perceived those design elements and principles. An average will be tallied from this count for each artifact. Averages will also be tallied for each session in both the focus group and the comparison group. The primary goal is to gather additional data to increase the robustness of findings from the 2010 - 2011 research project
Students who design an Augmented Reality simulation for a local artwork will display a significant increase in perception of visual design forms when compared to students who engage similar projects without the Augmented Reality design context.
Mobile Data Mining: Beyond Mobile Computing Surveys
- Ian Shepherd, D.A.
- Brent Reeves, Ph.D.
Although ACU's mobile computing initiative has been exceptionally well-received, we have reached the limits of mobile computing research based on self-reporting surveys. We are now at the point where new insights into mobile computing require access to real usage data. Data will be collected via two methods: (1) data capture process from existing ACU system logs that stores “device use data” for analysis and (2) data reporting and query system that allows mobile fellows to query the data using web based analysis tools. This enables researchers to assess, for instance, how the mobile device usage patterns of an “A” student differ from that of a “D” student.
Collecting data by user (ixs03a), device type (desk top, lap top, mobile device), campus location (COBA atrium), application use (Blackboard), content accessed (Quiz, date / time (4/7/11 at 5:22 pm), and Banner demographic information (GPA) will enable ACU researchers to do pattern analysis on actual mobile device usage. The findings from Fall 2010 research showed a difference in use patterns of iPad students. Visualization of that data shows that iPad user patterns are more diffused when compared to the laptop user. One possible explanation is that because iPad is truly a mobile device, they are available at any moment to work on educational content. Laptops are more “fixed” and less mobile and therefore less available for moments of study.
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Constructivist Techniques in a Biochemistry I Course
Researcher(s): Autumn Sutherlin, Ph.D.
Biochemistry I, a difficult course requiring memorization and then evaluation of large amounts of material, will be revamped. At times the lecture can be bogged down by facts leading to less time to discuss the difficult concepts and work through the analysis and evaluation of the material. In an effort to better use class time, reading, supported by podcasts to help explain calculations and other similar concepts, will be assigned for each lecture. Students will then post questions online (via Blackboard, course blog, wallwisher.com, etc.) about the material. Those questions along with responses to questions asked in class via ResponseWare will be used to guide class discussion and exercises using a technique called Just In Time teaching. This will allow identification of points at which the students are struggling and allow focus on areas that require higher order thinking skills. Performance of this year’s class will be compared to previous years’ groups looking for two things. The first is that the text and podcast delivery provide the support for students to learn the material in a manner that they do just as well on questions that require memorization. The second is that the Just In Time teaching will enable students to perform better on exam questions which require higher order thinking skills. In addition, in an effort to measure change in students’ logical abilities the students will take the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking both as a pre- and post-test. Students may also be analyzed using the Biochemistry Concepts pre-and post-test.
The use of mobile devices as a method of content delivery and in class content mastery evaluation will allow the focus of in class time to be on difficult concepts helping students in Biochemistry I to perform just as well on lower order thinking skill questions and achieve higher scores on higher order thinking skill questions on standard course measurements as compared to previous groups of students.