Research

 

2012


Mobile Learning Fellows


Current year mobile learning fellows' research with results expected June 2012.

Researcher(s): Stephen Baldridge, PhD, LMSW

Email: snb09a@acu.edu

Abstract: 
This study will explore the use of mobile technology in remote teaching, giving professors the ability to teach and instruct students via the mobile device while not in the traditional classroom setting. This study will utilize a quasi-experimental design between separate sections of no less than three classes. Three sections will be taught utilizing extensive remote teaching activities (i.e. sending students out of the classroom to experience different activities and blogging/podcasting about them remotely on their device, conducting “scavenger hunts” using mobile devices for instruction, using HeadsUp to facilitate group work while the professor is not physically present), while the other three sections will be taught identical course materials using traditional face-to-face methods. Measurement will consist of a pre-test/post-test design to compare student comprehension, retention of, and interest in course materials.

Research Hypotheses:
Teaching class remotely with the use of mobile devices (professor and students not face-to-face) will yield no significant difference in regards to comprehension, retention, and student interest compared to traditional face-to-face instruction.

 


 

Researcher(s): Phyllis Bolin, Ph.D.

Email: phyllis.bolin@acu.edu

Abstract:
This project is designed as evaluative research to determine the effectiveness of the use of mobile learning activities on student learning in two different mathematics content classes for preservice teaching majors--one is primarily elementary and special education majors and the other is secondary mathematics teaching majors. This will include a systematic investigation of the impact on learning through enhanced reasoning, questioning, and discussion of mathematical ideas. Assessment of the impact of integration of mobile learning devices in the learning environment will be examined and measured in terms of student learning outcomes for critical thinking and problem solving. Strategies for guiding and encouraging class discussion will include, but are not limited to the following: 

  • Use of electronic textbooks on iPad that enable insertion of notes and links to websites.
  • Use of iPad to provide a common learning device that students are able to personalize for specific learning needs.
  • Use of daily mobile questioning at beginning of each class to generate and foster class discussion and engagement.
  • Use of mobile learning devices to assess daily formative assessments to adjust and adapt learning activities.

Assessment of the strategies will include a quantitative evaluation of student learning outcomes on tests and quizzes, frequency analysis of course blog data and email; and qualitative evaluation of questions added to Student Opinions of Instructors Surveys, analysis of weekly student journal entries, and course blog data. The instructor will keep a journal describing and recording details of class discussions and class activities that contributed to or distracted from the classroom learning. 

Research Hypotheses:
The use of an interactive electronic textbook that can be personalized will result in increased student reading and independent study so that students are better prepared for class and assessments. Daily use of classroom response systems will foster increased reasoning, questioning, and discussion during class resulting in improved student learning outcomes and student satisfaction.

 


  

Researcher(s): Sheila Delony, Ph.D.

Email: sqd07a@acu.edu

Abstract:
The teacher candidates in two sections of READ 460, a field based course, will write reflections each week following reading lessons they will teach to small groups of elementary students. The first week, they will all write reflections without the aid of video in order to
establish a baseline of the content and quality of their reflections. The candidates will also complete surveys regarding their reflection experiences. The second week, they will video their lessons and will write reflections after viewing the video. Again, they will complete a survey regarding their reflection experiences. This pattern of alternating reflection procedures will continue for four to six weeks (depending on the needs of the public school setting). The candidates' written reflections and small group lessons will be graded each week. A combination of content analysis of the reflections, survey results, grades on the lessons, and grades on written reflections will be analyzed to determine the impact of using video to aid reflection and professional development.

Research Hypotheses: 
Teacher candidates' use of iPod touch or iPhone to video small group lessons will change the quality of their reflections when compared to reflections completed without the use of video and will result in improvement of teaching quality.

 


 

Researcher(s): Kenny Jones, M.F.A.

Email: kenny.jones@acu.edu

Abstract: 
The focus and comparison groups will be two separate sections of Two-Dimensional Design and/or Three-Dimensional Design courses. The focus group will be required to design, for a grade, an AR interface simulation (AR Sim) that would envision information related to Jack Maxwell’s sculpture site Jacob’s Dream. Content and media will be kept as close as possible in both sections, save for the AR Sim component in the focus group. The focus group will be decided by random selection. Both the comparison group and focus group will be required to write a four to eight page in-class essay – normal test-taking guidelines will be enforced. The essay will be based on questions related to describing the visual design characteristics of two artifacts, projected in-class during the essay sessions. This essay will be administered twice during the semester, once at midterm as a pre-experiment measurement and a post-experiment measurement, given as the final. 

Each essay will analyze the design forms of two artifacts, one image serves as a near transfer artifact and the other functions as a far transfer artifact - near transfer in that the image was of the same sculpture that the students were designing for in the project’s experiment. The far transfer artifact will not be shown or discussed at any time during the semester and will be an older artwork done in a medium different than that of Jacob’s Dream. Each essay measurement will have the same near transfer artifact, but the far transfer artifact will change with each measurement. 

From these essays, the number of design terms the student reported seeing will be counted. The assumption is that each use of a distinct descriptive visual design term will be indicative of how well the student perceived those design elements and principles. An average will be tallied from this count for each artifact. Averages will also be tallied for each session in both the focus group and the comparison group. The primary goal is to gather additional data to increase the robustness of findings from the 2010 - 2011 research project

Research Hypotheses: 
Students who design an Augmented Reality simulation for a local artwork will display a significant increase in perception of visual design forms when compared to students who engage similar projects without the Augmented Reality design context.

 


 

Researcher(s): 

  • Ian Shepherd, D.A.
  • Brent Reeves, Ph.D.

Email: ian.shepherd@coba.acu.edu

Abstract: 
Although ACU's mobile computing initiative has been exceptionally well-received, we have reached the limits of mobile computing research based on self-reporting surveys. We are now at the point where new insights into mobile computing require access to real usage data. Data will be collected via two methods: (1) data capture process from existing ACU system logs that stores “device use data” for analysis and (2) data reporting and query system that allows mobile fellows to query the data using web based analysis tools. This enables researchers to assess, for instance, how the mobile device usage patterns of an “A” student differ from that of a “D” student.

Research Hypotheses: 
Collecting data by user (ixs03a), device type (desk top, lap top, mobile device), campus location (COBA atrium), application use (Blackboard), content accessed (Quiz, date / time (4/7/11 at 5:22 pm), and Banner demographic information (GPA) will enable ACU researchers to do pattern analysis on actual mobile device usage. The findings from Fall 2010 research showed a difference in use patterns of iPad students. Visualization of that data shows that iPad user patterns are more diffused when compared to the laptop user. One possible explanation is that because iPad is truly a mobile device, they are available at any moment to work on educational content. Laptops are more “fixed” and less mobile and therefore less available for moments of study.

 


 

Researcher(s): Autumn Sutherlin, Ph.D.

Email: autumn.sutherlin@acu.edu

Abstract: 
Biochemistry I, a difficult course requiring memorization and then evaluation of large amounts of material, will be revamped. At times the lecture can be bogged down by facts leading to less time to discuss the difficult concepts and work through the analysis and evaluation of the material. In an effort to better use class time, reading, supported by podcasts to help explain calculations and other similar concepts, will be assigned for each lecture. Students will then post questions online (via Blackboard, course blog, wallwisher.com, etc.) about the material. Those questions along with responses to questions asked in class via ResponseWare will be used to guide class discussion and exercises using a technique called Just In Time teaching. This will allow identification of points at which the students are struggling and allow focus on areas that require higher order thinking skills. Performance of this year’s class will be compared to previous years’ groups looking for two things. The first is that the text and podcast delivery provide the support for students to learn the material in a manner that they do just as well on questions that require memorization. The second is that the Just In Time teaching will enable students to perform better on exam questions which require higher order thinking skills. In addition, in an effort to measure change in students’ logical abilities the students will take the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking both as a pre- and post-test. Students may also be analyzed using the Biochemistry Concepts pre-and post-test.

Research Hypotheses: 
The use of mobile devices as a method of content delivery and in class content mastery evaluation will allow the focus of in class time to be on difficult concepts helping students in Biochemistry I to perform just as well on lower order thinking skill questions and achieve higher scores on higher order thinking skill questions on standard course measurements as compared to previous groups of students.

2011 


Mobile Learning Fellows


Longitudinal Evaluation of a University-Wide Mobile Learning Initiative: (How) Does Ubiquity Matter?

Researcher(s): Brad Crisp, Ph.D.

Email: brad.crisp@acu.edu

Abstract:
Building on prior educational and technology research, this study investigated the degree to which student characteristics (e.g., classification) and perceptions of mobile learning devices (i.e., technology beliefs, attitudes, and intentions) impacted student device selections (i.e., iPhone versus iPod touch), device usage (e.g., academic, social and entertainment frequency), and student outcomes (e.g., student engagement) over time.

Key Findings:
The survey is being administered and will be closed in mid-June. Across all user groups, attitude toward mobile learning devices as well as perceived device impacts are very positive, and academic usage and impact continue to be lower than social and entertainment. Attitude, impact and usage also vary by device with iPhone users responding more favorably. For example, students using iPhone had higher usage levels of the mobile portal than iPod touch users.

Status Report PDF

ACU Connect Summit (2011) Presentation PPT

Related Publications / Presentations 

  • Crisp, C.B. and Williams, M.L., “Mobile Device Selection in Higher Education: iPhone versus iPod touch.” PDF
  • In M.M. Cruz-Cunha and F. Moreira (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Mobility and Computing: Evolving Technologies and Ubiquitous Impacts Computing (pp. 1213-1225). USA: IGI Global, 2011. ACU Connected 2009. Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX. 
  • Mobile Learning 2009; William Rankin and Brad Crisp; Capitol Hilton, Washington DC; 17 February 2009. "ACU Connected: A Campus-Wide Mobile-Learning Initiative."
  • EDUCAUSE 2009; Brad Crisp, Kyle Dickson, Scott Perkins, Cynthia Powell and George Saltsman; Denver CO; 6 November 2009; "Mobile-Learning with iPhone and iPod touch a Year Later."
  • ACU Connected Summit 2009. Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX. 

Other Publications / Presentations by Brad Crisp

 


 

Podcasts as Support for General Science and Biochemistry Laboratories

Researcher(s):

  • Cynthia Powell, Ph.D.
  • Autumn Sutherlin, Ph.D.

Email: powellc@acu.edu, autumn.sutherlin@acu.edu

Abstract:
One of the difficulties in any science laboratory is preparing students to use and understand lab techniques that they have not used previously. Research done in General Chemistry laboratories using mobile devices have shown them to be a good tool for delivering student support during laboratory sessions. To extend this research Biochemistry Laboratory and Pre-service teachers laboratory students were given access to podcasts via iPhone and iPod touch. This study assesses the extent to which podcasts increased students’ independent performance during labs, as well as their achievement on laboratory practical exams.  

Key Findings:  
This pilot project has provided data on the usefulness of podcasts in Biochemisty and General Science laboratories and allowed the researchers to begin the process of integrating mobile devices into the curriculum for the two courses. The two populations have very different Group Assessment of Logical Thinking and Experiences of Teaching and Learning profiles and are enrolled in courses with vastly different curricula, but both groups responded positively to the availability of podcasts teaching laboratory techniques. Future work in this area should include editing and improvement of podcasts based on areas of weakness seen through lab practical scores and on leveraging the advantages of mobile devices for maximum benefit.

Full Report PDF

ACU Connected Summit Presentation PDF

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • Critical Breakthroughs: CCCU International Forum. William Rankin, George Saltsman, and Cynthia Powell; Atlanta GA; 25 February 2010; "ACU Connected: Developing a Campus-Wide Mobile-Learning Initiative at Abilene Christian University." 
  • Podcast Effectiveness as Scaffolding Support for Students Enrolled in First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory (2010).
  • Podcast Effectiveness as Scaffolding Support for Students Enrolled in First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory (2010).
  • EDUCAUSE 2009, Brad Crisp, Kyle Dickson, Scott Perkins, Cynthia Powell and George Saltsman; Denver CO; 6 November 2009; "Mobile-Learning with iPhone and iPod touch a Year Later."

Other Publications / Presentations by Cynthia Powell

 


 

Chapter 0: A Student-Created Online Textbook

Researcher(s): Mark Phillips, Ph.D.

Email: mark.phillips@coba.acu.edu

Abstract:
Undergraduate students developed and deployed their own electronic textbook replacements, allowing for enhanced functionality, cost effectiveness and readability on diverse devices. Pedagogical implications of enhanced learning through participation in a significant course experience were also assessed.

Key Findings:

  • A survey of student users found that users rated the electronic text highly on usability, convenience, and value.
  • Allowed students to forego a textbook purchase while still becoming acquainted with terms and concepts.
  • Helped students focus on the most relevant content by eliminating the filler material in the traditional text.
  • Students who completed the project not only became deeply familiar with one particular aspect of the course material, but also developed a much better understanding of the challenges of large project organization and of working in a team.
  • During the following semester this new resource will serve as the sole textbook for the course.

Full Report PDF

Related Publications / Presentations:

Other Publications / Presentations:

  • A Campus-Wide Mobile-Learning Initiative at Abilene Christian University. Unites States Army. Abilene, TX, 2010.
  • Mobilizing an Institution: How ACU Funded, Implemented, and Evaluated a Campus-Wide Technology Initiative. Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 2010 annual Meeting. Louisville, KY, 2010.
  • Researching Mobile Learning: Lessons Learned from ACU’s Second Year. EDUCAUSE 2010. Anaheim, CA, 2010.
  • ConnectED Open House. Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX, 2001.

 


 

Mobile Jumpstarts in a Calculus Course

Researcher(s): Jason Holland, Ph.D.

Email: jason.holland@acu.edu

Abstract: 
Two mobile learning strategies were utilized to evaluate their effects on student learning and exam achievement in calculus courses. Utilizing the NANO tools section of the myACU website, a “Jumpstart”, a daily mobile question, was employed for the experimental group. Additionally, a series of videos reinforcing the Jump Start were published on iTunesU and made available to the participants. Then items on exams related to the concept explained in the Jumpstart were administered to assess learning for this objective. Material on exams was covered in class for both the control and experimental group.

Key Findings:

  • The experimental section performed better on items similar in concept to the jumpstart than the section that received the control question (this difference was statistically significant only on Test 2, though differences of the other three tests were close to the significance level).
  • Differences in test averages lacked statistical significance.

Full Report PDF

Mobile Jumpstarts in a Calculus Course PPT

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • American Mathematical Society. New Orleans, LA; January 6-9, 2011; Harnessing Mobile Learning.
  • Holland, J. (in progress). Mobile jumpstarts in a calculus course [invited paper]. PRIMUS: Problems, Resources, and Issues in Mathematics Undergraduate Studies.

 


 

Use of Augmented Reality Interfaces to Enhance Art Student Learning: An Experimental Comparison of Learning Platforms

Researcher(s): Kenny Jones

Email: kdj05d@acu.edu

Abstract: 
Augmented Reality (AR) can be described as layering virtual digital content on top of a real time image, for example as seen through an iPhone. I am interested in exploring whether the AR paradigm can significantly increase learning efficiency and retention as it relates to student perception and their report of what they see. I studied two art classes held in Fall 2010. Both groups were assigned the task to design a piece that would visualize information related to the ACU sculpture, “Jacob’s Dream”, created by Jack Maxwell. One group created an AR interface that would guide visitors in an informational walking tour. The other group created an informative, non-AR pamphlet. Findings from this study were inconclusive as to the AR affect on improvement of perception. This was due to evidence that the classes were too different before the study began. What we have learned is that it is possible to reliably measure this kind of learning, namely, the perception of visual design forms in far transfer artifacts.

Key Findings:
Results of the analysis show that for both near and far transfer artifacts, the focus group scored significantly higher than the comparison, non-AR group. However, while there were significant score differences between the groups on both near and far transfer artifacts, no conclusion can be drawn from the current data due to evidence that the groups were different prior to the first essay. 

These initial conditions could well have been caused by several factors that are not easily controlled (e.g. differences in class time, difference in the classification distribution - with the higher scoring group having more students classified as sophomore or above.) One factor to analyze in the future would be the teacher’s response to the AR group when compared to the non-AR group. Did the study itself create a novelty that subtly engaged the instructor in a deeper way with the AR group when compared to the non-AR group and thus affected student?  

It is possible to reliably measure the kind of learning that is key to both this study and student success in art and design - the perception of visual design forms in far transfer artifacts. Furthermore, this study provides a valuable foundation for extending this research to future experiments, albeit with greater randomization assignments.

Full Report PDF

Mobile Learning Augmented Reality PPT (pending)

 


 

The Efficacy of Mobile Computing Platforms: A Case Study

Researcher(s): John Ehrke, Ph.D.

Email: john.ehrke@acu.edu

Abstract: 
Over the next decade, it is anticipated that mobile learning technologies will significantly impact the future of the graphing calculator platform. The impact of integrated devices (devices which blend productivity, social media, and computing) on educational design in mathematics remains largely unexplored. In this study, we analyze the results of a fall 2010 focused comparison of two sections of a first-year, general education mathematics course. Student performance data and student perceptions of usability are compared across two platforms: the SpaceTime™ mobile computing app and the Texas Instruments™ TI-8x series of graphing calculators. Pedagogical implications of the case study results are viewed and discussed as an integration of action-research within the TPACK framework.

Key Findings:

  • Students were far more likely to encounter battery issues with their iPhone, but this was improved considerably in iPhone 4.
  • A greater number of students forgot their TI calculators over the course of the semester; due to the low sample size this is not statistically significant.
  • Students using the TI calculators reported usability was easier for tasks such as: data entry, sample statistics, linear regression and normal distributions.
  • Performance of the TI-8x series graphing calculator
    • Students are more familiar with the device initially, but this gap closes quickly.
    • Managing graphing windows can be difficult
    • Graphs lack color making it difficult to distinguish graphs.
    • Easier to get help outside of a class environment.
    • Supports more built in commands.
  • Performance of the SpaceTime™ mobile computing app
    • Superior graphics and intuitive control over graphs.
    • No support for multiple functions in the table interface.
    • Small key sizes contribute to increased data entry errors.
    • Catalog allows for quick repeated calculations.
    • Large statistical data sets can be preloaded saving class time.

Full Report PDF

Efficacy of Mobile Computing PDF

Related Publications / Presentations:

 


 

Optimist iPad 2.0: Rethinking the Rethought Newspaper

Researcher(s): 

  • Brian Burton, Ed.D.
  • Kenneth Pybus, J.D.
  • Susan Lewis, Ed.D.
  • Mike Wiggins, M.F.A.

Email: bgb07a@acu.edu

Abstract:
This study was designed to evaluate the extent to which design, programming and content influence student media usage.

Full Report (pending)

VIDEO: "We Did It!" - The Optimist is first to publish on iPad

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, 2011

Other Publications / Presentations:

  • Burton, B. G., Martin, B. N. (2010) Learning in 3D virtual environments: Collaboration and knowledge spirals. Journal of Educational Computing Research, Vol. 43(2) 259-273.
  • Burton, B. G., Martin, B. N., (2010) Collaboration and the use of Mobile Devices, paper, PDF. American Educational Research Association Convention, Denver, CO.
  • Burton, B. G., Mhlanga, F. S. (2010) Experiences and direction in teaching an undergraduate course in mobile computing, presentation, PDF. Southwest Educause Convention. Austin, TX.
  • Burton, B. G., Mhlanga, F.S. (2010) Best practices: Teaching mobile computing: practices & pitfalls, paper, PDF. Ed-Media Conference of AACE, Toronto, ON.
  • Mobilizing an Institution: How ACU Funded, Implemented, and Evaluated a Campus-Wide Technology Initiative. Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 2010 annual Meeting. Louisville, KY, 2010.
  • Researching Mobile Learning: Lessons Learned from ACU’s Second Year. EDUCAUSE 2010. Anaheim, CA, 2010.
  • Ed-Media Conference of AACE. Tornonto, Ontario 2010.
  • American Education Research Association Convention. Denver, CO, 2010.
  • ACU Undergraduate Research Festival. Abilene Christian University. Abilene, TX 2010.
  • ACU Faculty Enrichment presentation. Abilene Christian University. Abilene, TX 2010.
  • Southwest EDUCAUSE Convention. Austin, TX 2010.

Other Mobile Learning Research


Evaluation of the use of Mobile Technology in the Undergraduate and Graduate Classroom 

Researcher(s):

  • Stephen Baldridge, PhD, LMSW
  • Whitney Herrington, BA, MSW Student
  • Alexandra Moran, BSW Student
  • Wayne Paris, PhD, LCSW

Email: snb09a@acu.edu 

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to measure student perception regarding the use of mobile learning technology in delivering course content both in and out of the classroom. This study analyzed and compared data both from a freshman class in which every student was provided a mobile device, and a graduate class in which students may or may not have mobile devices . The researchers adapted a Mobile Learning Initiative survey used by Abilene Christian University to collect responses from both classes. The areas the survey evaluated included: identification of the primary mobile device used by the student; its importance at the university; usage in a specific course; how it was used in the courses under study; and, how effective the technology was in teaching class remotely. Preliminary analysis revealed that the freshman class showed a higher satisfaction rate possibly due to the fact that they have increased access to technological devices.

Key Findings:

  • Students reported high levels of satisfaction with use of mobile technology in learning course content.
  • Students reported activities were much more effective when every person had devices with them.
  • There was little difference between class with complete ubiquity and class without.
  • Those who were provided with devices (undergraduates) were significantly more likely to use this device in other classes as their “primary academic device”.

Full Report PDF

VIDEO: "Honest Answers" - How can instructors encourage students to express true thoughts on contentious issues?

ACU Connected Summit (2011) Presentation PPT

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • ACU Connected Summit, Abilene, TX, Feb '11
  • ACU Undergraduate Research Festival, Mar '11
  • Adam's Center for Teaching, Abilene, TX, April '11
  • National Social Science Association Technology Conference, Las Vegas, NV, April '11
  • Association of History, Literature, and Science, and Technology National Conference, Houston, TX, May '11
  • North American Christians in Social Work National Conference, Pittsburgh, PA (Oct '11)
  • [Pending Presentation] National Association of Baccalaureate Social Work Program Directors Conference, Portland, OR, Mar '12
  • [Pending Presentation] National Social Science Association Technology Conference, student paper competition, Las Vegas, NV, April '12

 


 

Digital Texts and the Future of Education: Why books?

Researcher(s): Scott Perkins, Ph.D.

Email: perkinss@acu.edu

Abstract: 
ACU and GYLO partnered to investigate factors and relationships associated with using mobile devices as supplemental tools for teaching statistics in higher education. The Statistics 1 app has been used in multiple ACU-GYLO research studies
since 2009, beginning with testing in undergraduate statistics courses at ACU over the fall 2009, spring 2010, and fall 2010 semesters. App usability was evaluated and student usage patterns and motivation were assessed. Researchers also tested for relationships between students' perceptions of using Statistics 1 and their final course grades. Finally, the researchers focused on examining form factor differences in how students reported using the Statistics 1 app on mobile devices (iPhone or iPod touch) versus iPad.

Key Findings:
A series of pilot studies found a positive correlation between use of the app and perceptions of increased engagement and consequently higher grades in the course. In the fall 2009 study, the majority of students (24 of the 30 responding) reported a
heightened ease of and motivation to study due to the increased mobility and convenience (quick access to information and easier to carry around than the text) and mentioned going through quiz questions "whenever" they chose. 

In the spring 2010 study, The majority of students (18 of the 25 surveyed) reported using the Statistics 1 app at times and in places not traditionally considered "formal learning spaces" such as downtime at work, on the bus, or when their schedule placed restraints on their formal study time. 

Exploration of the relationships between students' perceptions and attitudes toward using the app and their final course grades demonstrated multiple significant positive associations in the spring of 2010.

  • First, students who perceived that the app had improved their ability to succeed obtained significantly higher grades than students who perceived no effect on their ability (p<.01).
  • Secondly, students who reported that use of the app increased their motivation to study also showed significantly higher final grades than students who perceived the app had little to no effect on their motivation to study (p<.01). 

Overall, students' perception of increased motivation was strongly related to final course grades. In the fall 2010 study, around 75% (26/34) of the students expressed a preference for using iPad more for studying, with 13 students specifically attributing the difference to the larger screen size. Conversely, students found the portability of the smaller devices, iPhone or iPod touch, important because they always had the device with them. 

Full Report: Mayrath, M., Nihalani, P., & Perkins, S. (2011). Digital texts and the future of education: Why books?, EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 34(1). 

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • Perkins, S. & Saltsman, G. (under review). Engaging Faculty in a Campus-Wide Initiative: Perspectives on Abilene Christian University's Mobile Learning Program, International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, invited manuscript under
    review.
  • Perkins, S. & Casdorph, M. (2011). Digital Swiss Army Knife, EDUCAUSE Review, 46(2).
  • Turning Technologies User Conference 2010. Cambridge, MA; October 11, 2010; Researching the Impact of Mobility: Lessons Learned and Directions for the Future. 
  • Perkins, S., & Saltsman, G. (2010). Mobile Learning at Abilene Christian University: Successes, Challenges, and Results from Year One, Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology, 6(1), 47-54.
  • Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. William Rankin and George Saltsman; Atlanta, GA; December 7, 2009; Mobile Learning with iPhone and iPod touch: Year Two.
  • 2009 EDUCAUSE Conference. Brad Crisp, Kyle Dickson, Scott Perkins, and George Saltsman; Denver, CO; November 6, 2009; Mobile-Learning with iPhone and iPod touch a Year Later.
  • 2009 ACUTA Portland Fall Seminar. William Rankin and George Saltsman; Portland, OR; October 27, 2009; Mobile-Learning at Abilene Christian University: A Second-Year Assessment of ACU Connected.
  • MoblEd '09. William Rankin, Scott Perkins, and George Saltsman; Pasadena, CA; April 23, 2009; ACU Connected: A Campus-Wide Mobile- Learning Initiative at Abilene Christian University.

Other Publications / Presentations by Scott Perkins


iPad Studies


iPad in a Science Teacher Community of Practice

Researcher(s):

  • Kim Pamplin, Ph. D.
  • Lloyd Goldsmith, Ed. D.
  • Donnie Snider, Ed. D.
  • Jerilyn Pfeifer

Email: pamplink@acu.edu

Abstract:
Thirty-eight secondary science teachers received iPad to determine whether and how iPad could be educationally effective. For a variety of tasks, teachers used iPad more while traveling, less at home, and least at work. 85% used iPad daily for educational activities. Several teachers reported that their effective use of iPad and other technology has motivated schools to invest in more technology for them and other teachers in their districts. Limitations include lack of Flash capability and lack of classroom sets.

Key Findings:

  • iPad is preferred over notebook and desktop computers for most activities while traveling and at home. Researching and editing documents were two activities for which teachers preferred notebook computers. Desktop computers were preferred for several activities at work.
  • Easy, unfiltered access to the Internet was the single most cited educational benefit.
  • Portability and connectivity outside the classroom was another major benefit. Teachers can record data collected in the field, graph it on the spot, and even record lat/lon coordinates using iPad.
  • Lack of Flash capability and difficulty projecting were significant limitations.
  • Our teachers have become education technology leaders in their schools. Teachers' use of iPad and other technology has been so educationally effective that their peers, principals, and superintendents are often convinced to invest in similar technology for other teachers and classrooms.

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE) Conference, Nashville, March, 2011.
  • Teacher Quality Grants technical meeting for project directors. October, 2010.

 


 

Consume and Disseminate Media; In-class Creative Tool

Researcher(s): Brandon Young, M.Arch

Email: brandon.young@acu.edu

Abstract:
In addition to using iPad to consume and disseminate a variety of information and media, it may also be used as a tool to aid the creative process. There are a couple of interesting opportunities that come to mind. IPad will be utilized to deliver instructional text in the art and design disciplines while also providing a platform for the user to engage/interact with the text. 

Example: Provide an academic text on Design Drawing in an eBook format that allows the user to read and view examples of different drawing systems, view video tutorials on how to create a particular drawing type and then provide an opportunity (and interface) to complete related drawing exercises. Essentially, the user is able to read, view and actively participate in the tutorial process. The completed exercises could also be published to allow others to view, evaluate and provide feedback on similar work. This same model could be applied to other instructional academic texts (rendering, design methodology, 3D modeling, digital illustration, animation, etc.) and could utilize/integrate/link to a wide array of resources currently available online. The second opportunity is directly related to the example mentioned above. IPad will also be explored as a medium for drawing/painting/illustration, investigating the use of a stylus (with a variety of nib widths) and pressure-sensitivity to explore the possibility of using iPad as a portable, digital drawing pad.

Key Findings:
IPad is not a sophisticated drawing tablet; which was readily apparent, because of it's lack of pressure-sensitivity and the fairly wide nib widths of available styluses. However, in my experience it performs fairly well as a drawing tablet for diagrams illustrating design concepts (PDF - created with Penultimate which allows the creation of multi-page sketchbooks). It is easy enough to use and allows you to explore several iterations of a concept quickly.

Good drawings can be produced using iPad (several examples are available online), but it requires a different sensitivity/tactility than traditional media. (See example of my self-portrait, created with Brushes which records every stroke made during the process.) The great benefit is being able to take multiple tools/media (pencils, brushes, colors, etc.) virtually anywhere. This portability can be extremely useful for doing work on site. It also leads to a significant critique of the first iPad, which is the lack of a camera. This could be an incredibly useful tool to have in situ – take photographs, use as underlays and sketch over them without leaving the site. With iPad2, this seems to have been remedied.

The ability to "layer" visual data (images, drawings, etc.) in most drawing apps is useful, especially when evaluating existing conditions and providing alternatives to proposed design solutions. As a teaching tool, example drawings can be used as the "base" layer upon which the student can build.

The following apps were also analyzed and reviewed: 

  • Brushes: simple interface, tool selection and navigation, decent emulation of pressure-sensitivity, responsive and accurate, a very powerful mobile, drawing tool.
  • SketchBook Pro: fairly deep set of tools, interface not too difficult once accustomed (but not as simple as Brushes), responsive and accurate, seems to be tailored more to the design industry (as opposed to fine art)
  • Penultimate: basic tool set that is extremely easy to use (but limited in what you can do), good for basic sketching and note taking, provides the ability to create multi-page documents (sketchbooks) which is a very useful feature, multiple "sheet" styles
    (plain, ruled and grid), grid pattern could be extremely useful if the user was able to scale the grid size, user cannot scale the size of the window (no zoom feature), in my opinion, this is a great app for schematic sketches/diagrams integrated with notes
  • Adobe Ideas and Quill: I did not use these as much as time went on, both have simple, easy-to-use interface, both are vector-based (as opposed to the previous apps which are all raster-based), vectors provide a very crisp, clean line, but can also slow down rendering and response-time (which can make sketching difficult and unnatural), also have the ability to export vectors and edit in other software (Quill only)

Example Sketches PDF

 


 

Media Presentation: Typography, Design, Layout of Digital Readers

Researcher(s): Nil Santana, M.S.

Email: jps98k@acu.edu

Abstract:
During the course of fall ’10 semester, my students and I briefly researched the implications of dynamic layout designs used on digital tablets, more specifically, Apple’s iPad. Throughout the research, we realized that not many publications were fully using neither exploring the capabilities of such devices, as information architecture, layout, and dynamic content concern.

Total participants: 18
Each participant was allowed to use an iPad for one week, and then filled out a form with key points to be investigated.

Research Brief - iPad and Graphic Design: 

  • The use of iPad devices in graphic design: typography, layout, navigation, and use of dynamic content (images, video, animations, etc).
  • What are the implications of the medium? How can iPad change the way we create and access content? (Aesthetically and functionally)
  • How can iPad change the way we teach design disciplines?
  • How can iPad be used as displays for presentation of designs, the possible interactions the touch-screen offer, and how such interactions can be integrated on the presentations
  • Explore the capabilities of navigation (hierarchical, linear, web, etc.)

Key Findings:

  • Our investigations concluded that the majority (90%) of researched publishing companies/magazines still struggled with issues on (1) how to shift from paper to iPad. Most of the e-magazines researched were basically static PDF versions of printed issues. Our research group also realized that they were not sure (2) what to do with the new devices, since we observed it was not just a matter of making the content digitally available, there were issues in relation to layout (landscape vs. portrait orientation, zoom in/out, multiple level interactions).
  • Edition29 publications ranked top in all items (design, navigation, interaction and information architecture). It was the only one that presented a great combination and variety of media (text, audio, and video).
  • Design students responded positively in response to the new possibilities for their disciplines. Although being somewhat new devices (some students were yet not too familiar with iPad), they were able to realize the potential use of e-readers in publication and marketing. For them, it will be just a matter of time as consumers will be more prone to using them.
  • We concluded that as more designers, information architects, and programmers will familiarize with this new medium, more, and better publications will become available. We also concluded that just as web design was a new challenge when first introduced as discipline, designing for iPad will require a specific set of skills different than traditional print design.
  • I would like to give continuity to the research, and investigate same (new) publications one year later, during fall 2011.

 


 

Mobile Devices in a Project-Based Physics Classroom: Developing 
NETS-S in Students

Researcher(s):

  • Billie McConnell, Ed.D
  • Stacie McConnell

Email: bjm09a@acu.edu

Abstract:
This paper is to report the impact technology has on innovation, communication and collaboration, and critical thinking skills in a project-based classroom. Students have access to several technological applications, including iPad, translators, computer software, and projectors. Innovation has been shown to improve when students use technology to obtain starting ideas for various projects. Of the eight students in the classroom, all have shown improvements in their group communication skills and their ability to work with one another fluidly, using technology access project documents and research topics.

Key Findings:

  • Students have used mobile devices as springboards to come up with a finished product. They take the many ideas discovered in their research and compile them into a cohesive, new product.
  • During the first few projects, there were never many students who were willing to think critically. As the year has progressed, students are more willing to think and ask questions of both their group members and the teacher.
  • Project design has become more conducive to student innovation by providing choice and freedom to alter the assignments.
  • On individual summative assessments, students have dramatically increased their thinking abilities. Improvements have been seen on content reflection papers, problem sets, and in question sessions (students are able to come up with better answers faster).
  • Students have learned to communicate physics ideas more effectively through practice and presentations.
  • A student from China said that the convention he was used to has been an only lecture-based classroom. He said that the project-based format was a better way to learn.
  • Students have chosen to do their research on the internet with iPad, rather than use their textbooks.

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) conference, June 2011.
  • ACU Undergraduate Research Festival, Abilene Christian University. Abilene, TX. 28 March, 2011
  • Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE) Conference, Nashville, TN. 9 March, 2011.

 


 

Paducation: iPad as an Effective Technology for Taking an Online Program

Researcher(s):

  • Scott Hamm, DEd.MIN
  • Breana Jones, M.S.

Email: seh04e@acu.edu

Abstract:
In cooperation with the mobile learning initiative (MLI) at ACU, iPad were distributed to a cohort of online graduate students in the Leadership of Digital Learning certificate as part of the Master of Education degree. Approximately 18 students received a 3G iPad for the purpose of using the device to read course materials, complete assignments, and implement application in personal and other professional activities. This paper presents a mixed methods study of feedback and data from surveys administered to the participants. The deployment of devices is to evaluate the potential of iPad as an effective technology for students taking online courses and to determine usage patterns over four semesters. Additional findings examine the novelty factor in the introduction of new technology, viability of digital texts on the device, and perception data in response to a survey distributed at the middle and end of the study.

Key Findings:

  • While traveling, iPad is preferred over all other devices (laptop and desktop computers, iPhone, etc.) for most activities.
  • iPad is preferred for most other activities while at home, work or school, excluding research, document creation and editing and collaboration.
  • Most students reported using their iPad on a daily basis for personal, social and educational.
  • A vast majority (84%) of respondents reported iPad utilization in the course facilitates more active contribution to the learning process.
  • Participants also indicated using iPad increased interaction with peers and/or colleagues outside the course and enhanced their overall experience in the course.

Paducation: iPad as an Effective Technology for Taking an Online Program PDF

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE) Conference. Scott Hamm & Breana Jones. Nashville, TN. 8 March, 2011.

 


 

Use of iPad in Training of Graduate Psychology Students in Assessment and Therapy Skills

Researcher(s): 

  • David McAnulty, PhD
  • Ryan Gertner, MS
  • Landon Cotton, MS

Email: dxm09a@acu.edu

Abstract:
The present study was exploratory and qualitative in nature. One supervisor and two therapists explored in mock assessment/therapy sessions the utility of iPad as a tool for (a) note taking and record keeping, (b) supervisor-to-supervisee feedback in real time, and (c) accessing clinical resources (e.g., risk assessment checklists). Particular attention was given to the learning curve required on the therapist/trainee’s part, as well as to the perception of the device’s interference from the perspective of the (mock) client.

Key Findings:

  • IPad is readily adaptable for primary in-session note taking, using one of several note-taking programs. The device’s security features allow for protection of client privilege & confidentiality.
  • Session notes can easily be retrieved and stored on a computer via the dropbox account method.
  • IPad lends itself well to the storage and accessing of useful, even critical, information for therapist trainees. Such information can be stored and accessed in the form of editable PDF files and includes: questionnaires, rating scales, suicide assessment instruments, child abuse assessment checklists, etc.
  • There is a significant learning curve requiring several hours (10+) of practice on the therapist-trainee’s part to become proficient with iPad. Initial reports indicate that both the therapist and the client feel that distractibility is minimal during note taking but more notable during the reading of communications from supervisor (due to the need to switch between programs) and while accessing resources (again due to the need to search for documents. Still, the rated distractibility appears commensurate with what is experienced when a trainee needs to sift through different paper/hard-copy resources or notes.
  • Most commercially available programs are not fully suited to this application so that it would be beneficial to develop single-purpose applications for iPad (such as suicide assessment checklist/decision tree) to minimize the need to search through files.
  • Supervisory feedback via real-time text messaging was rated as very helpful in mock-difficult-client scenarios. Shorter text messages that were quickly read at a glance were rated as significantly more helpful than longer messages for the trainee and less obtrusive (as perceived by the client).

Recommendations / Further Research:

  • This pilot study suggest promising use of iPad for further research and wider application in the clinical training of therapists
  • A pre-practicum workshop to train therapists in effective note taking with iPad combined with at-home and mock-therapy-session practice would be essential
  • It is recommended that specific applications be developed for mental health training needs (e.g., risk assessment)
  • Further exploration is needed to investigate the use of iPad to access an entirely web-based (or server-based) note-taking and assessment system.
  • Finally, research with a larger number of trainees, supervisors and actual clients is required to assess for (a) ease of use, (b) receptiveness/perception and (c) impact on therapeutic outcomes.
  • The ACU Psychology Clinic has, as a result of this pilot study, requested iPad for all graduate level practicum trainees for 2011-2012

 


 

Programming for iPad/iOS

Researcher(s): Brian Burton, Ed.D.

Email: bgb07a@acu.edu

Abstract:
This papers shares experiences from teaching a lab-intensive undergraduate introductory course on mobile computing at Abilene Christian University. The lab was designed for computer science and information technology students developing applications for iPhone, iPod touch or iPad. The data was analyzed through the lens of the self-determination theory. Direction for future courses in mobile computing at ACU are discussed.

Key Findings:

  • Students were highly motivated to complete projects
  • With competence, autonomy and connectedness, students are motivated to become self-directed learners

Practices and Challenges for Mobile Computing PDF 

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, 2011

Other Publications / Presentations:

  • Burton, B. G., Martin, B.N., (in press). Student engagement and the creation of knowledge within a 3D virtual learning environment. In Immersive Environments, Augmented Realities and Virtual Worlds: Assessing Future Trends in Education, Ed. S. D’Agustino, IGI Global Publishing.
  • Burton, B. G., Martin, B. N., Thomas, D. (2010) Collaboration and the use of three dimensional interface within a virtual learning environment. In Adaptation, Resistance and Access to Instructional Technologies: Assessing Future Trends in Education, Ed. S. D’Agustino. IGI Global Publishing.
  • Burton, B. G., Martin, B. N. (2010) Learning in 3D virtual environments: Collaboration and knowledge spirals. Journal of Educational Computing Research, Vol. 43(2) 259-273.
  • Burton, B. G., Martin, B. N., (2010) Collaboration and the use of Mobile Devices, paper, PDF. American Educational Research Association Convention, Denver, CO.
  • American Educational Research Association Convention. Burton, B. G., Martin, B. N.; Denver, CO, 2010. Collaboration and the use of Mobile Devices.
  • Southwest Educause Convention. Burton, B. G., Mhlanga, F. S.; Austin, TX, 2010. Experiences and direction in teaching an undergraduate course in mobile computing, presentation, PDF. Austin, TX.
  • Ed-Media Conference of AACE. Burton, B. G., Mhlanga, F.S. Toronto, ON, 2010; Best practices: Teaching mobile computing: practices & pitfalls, paper, PDF.

 


 

Digital Textbook

Researcher(s): Shelly Sanders, Ph.D.

Email: shelly.sanders@acu.edu

Abstract:
After receiving our iPad and creating a base syllabus for our co-taught IC2 (Self and Society), we proposed to spend the year embedding traditional course documents into the mobile devices, with the aim of eventually investigating learning efficiency and retention for information acquired on mobile devices vs. traditional methods of instruction. In the fall of 2010, Dr. Caron Gentry and I planned to examine the sociological implications and symbolism present in the popularity of horror theory, literature and film from Frankenstein to 28 Days Later. Having already gathered the traditional sources for the e-text, including books, articles, websites and movies, we would then integrate the interactive technology and seamless interface of iPad. For example, we envisioned the student reading Frankenstein and at the same time, being able to see the changes in the representation of the monster through the past century via media, images, and film. Further, we would include our lectures and podcasts as reference material that intersects, at various points, the readings and primary sources that the students can automatically link to in or outside of the classroom, which is the e-text edited volume. 

Key Findings:
We received iPad and used them in the development of the IC2 course in the Creating Significant Learning Environments Workshops that were hosted by Dwayne Harupnuik in the Adams Center during the Fall of 2010. We designed an IC2 course similar to the one described above, and designed and wrote a syllabus. We found that iPad has many interesting applications for the interdisciplinary Core curriculum, including the ability to use multiple interfaces simultaneously. We will have more findings in the future if we are able to use the syllabus we designed to teach the IC2 course in the future.

 


 

iPad and Study Abroad: Interactive Learning in the International Environment

Researcher(s):

  • Jennifer Shewmaker, PhD
  • Stephen Shewmaker

Email: jws02b@acu.edu

Abstract:
The Apple iPad was used as a tool in the Study Abroad context in Leipzig, Germany for the spring 2011 semester. This pilot program explored the uses of iPad as an interactive learning tool in the international setting. 

Key Findings:
IPad was found to be very useful in tying in historical context and media with both texts and site visits. Key uses included:

  • IPad was hugely helpful as a reader. It was light enough to easily carry on excursions and plenty of books could be loaded on it.
  • IPad was frequently used in class discussions to share visual imagery and narrative that helped shape the conversation, either through video or photograph. For example, when discussing the fall of the Berlin wall, a video was shown on iPad documenting the euphoria of that moment.
  • IPad was used frequently as an enhancement to excursion activities. Through it's use, we were able to bring the historical context of the setting to life. For example, when standing in Wenceslas Square in Prague, we showed photos on iPad of several famous gatherings in that spot throughout history.
  • IPad's notes and Pages features were helpful in catching on site reflections when traveling. Rather than bring a notebook, books, journals, and so forth, iPad allowed us to have everything in one small package. So we were able to enhance our discussions at historical sites with photos, videos, bring along books to share passages and take notes
    all with iPad.

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • [Pending submission to Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad] Shewmaker, J. & Shewmaker, S. (2011). iPad and Study Abroad: Interactive Learning in the International Environment.

 


 

IPad Effect: How Platform Choice Affects Information Consumption and Retention

Researcher(s):

  • Susan L. Lewis, Ed. D.
  • Kenneth R. Pybus, J.D.

Email: lewiss@acu.edu

Abstract:
This study examines the effects different media platforms have on information comprehension and retention. With constantly evolving technologies influencing the way people consume information, media users and creators must better understand the effects of such technologies on information comprehension and retention. Research across the fields of psychology and mass communication reveals that differing platforms make a difference in retention and comprehension, according to how they benefit or hinder cognitive processing. Factors such as informational elements, sensory modes of processing, and design layout among others affect information comprehension and recall. These effects were considered within the methodology of the study, which included testing on all three formats – print, web site and touch screen (e.g. iPad) – in order to discover specifically how each platform and its content helps or hinders cognitive processing of information. This study considers 90 undergraduate student participants’ comprehension and retention of a complex magazine article presented in print, online and touch screen forms, with 30 students consuming and responding to the article on each platform. Measurement of comprehension and retention were measured separately. Similar to Sanchez and Wiley’s study on the effects of scrolling on text comprehension (2009), participants were asked write a persuasive essay after reading the specified article. Second, in order to measure the retention of the article information, participants completed a 15-question Likert scale survey. Outcomes will include a comparison of comprehension and retention of information among the three platforms, as well as a discussion of the informational elements that may have affected the results.

Key Findings:

  • No difference in fact recall among the three types of media (hard, iPad or desktop computer). On average the groups missed 33%, 32% and 33% of the questions respectively.
  • Respondents who read on the desktop computer (60% indicated some level) indicated a much lower comprehension of the meaning of the article than those reading on iPad (73.4% ) or paper (83.4%).
  • Of those respondents who indicated comprehension of the themes, the platforms compared more closely – desktop (23%), iPad (27%) and paper (32%).

IPad Effect: How Platform Choice Affects Information Consumption and Retention PPT

Scheduled Presentation:

  • [Schedule Presentation] The Hawaii International Conference on Social Sciences, Communication Division. Honolulu, HI. June 1-4, 2011.

 


 

Q&A Device for Summit; Integrate Course Readings (Cornell Note Taking Method)

Researcher(s): Brady Bryce

Email: brady.bryce@acu.edu

Abstract:
The original classroom proposal intended iPad be used to immediately reflect learning from the class discussion time, using the Cornell Note Taking Method. Since, iPad were not available for all 15 class members this proved impossible. However, the revised approach made use of two online Google forms accessed on other mobile devices and computers. One form was to provide immediate feedback from all students on group projects. A second form allowed students to evaluate their fellow group member participation. The overall aim was similar: provide a form and allow students space to immediately respond, yet had the added benefit of immediately presenting that information back to groups for further innovation. 

Key Findings:

  • High Percentage of Student Response: 14 of 15 completed the Group Feedback Form; 15 of 15 completed the Group Evaluation Form.
  • Qualitative results seem to indicate that formative feedback was provided by group members. The formative nature of the feedback was indicated as individuals adapting their projects based upon feedback as well as how they innovated the chosen project using feedback received via the online form. In some ways, it was like turning the entire classroom into teachers providing feedback and the pressure of raising a project's standards to please both fellow students and teacher seemed to work.
  • The group evaluation form (where students evaluate how their fellow group members participated in the creation of the project) helped me as a teacher gauge individual student participation in order to provide a unique grade for each student based upon performance and participation.
  • One thing I observed by loaning my iPad to one student in each class. Students with iPad were more engaged to have a tool at their finger tips to instantly enter information. There were three students with no device (no computer or smartphone). Of those three students, two took their handwritten notes and entered data later and one did not bother to enter data. Clearly, having iPad tablet (or other device in the classroom) would increase likelihood of project submission.

 


 

Exploring iPad Utility with an Underrepresented Student Research Program

Researcher(s): 

  • Scott Hamm, D.Ed.Min.
  • Jason Morris, Ed.D.
  • Christopher Munn

Email: seh04e@acu.edu

Abstract: 
First generation, low income undergraduate students were presented with iPad to assess its utilization in research with this population. Participants include rising juniors and seniors involved in a twenty-five (25) week Research Institute. Working closely with a faculty mentor, they are provided experience in research techniques, research writing, data analysis, and research computer skills. Orientation to the device and its uses was provided, as well as regular meetings to explore apps which could be useful to the research process. A post-research survey was also conducted to evaluate time spent on research tasks and efficaciousness to the process.

Key Findings:

  • Data collection in progress

Related Publications / Presentations:

 


 

Study Abroad

Researcher(s): Robert Green, MFA

Email: greenr@acu.edu

Abstract: 
In the months since receiving iPad, I experimented with its usefulness for teaching in study abroad settings. Between May 10 and July 1, I was teaching a group of 22 students in two primary settings: Oxford, England, and Florence, Italy. The idea I was testing was the extent to which iPad could become a “course-in-a-box”--that it might be the perfect mobile tool for the original “mobile teaching and learning” we call study abroad. In the summer of 2012 a new colleague and I will benefit from the “course in a box” developed with my iPad.

Key Findings:
Notation Device - For faculty there were numerous times when important information needed to be recorded immediately. These included financial transactions where no receipts were given, bus or train numbers or schedules, addresses, phone numbers, etc. Because I wanted to end the study abroad program with a course-in-a-box, I needed an accurate record of what we had done so that another faculty member could repeat everything with the greatest success and the least amount of effort. I kept a running log throughout the journey.

It was easy to sit down and use Pages or other apps to record observations about a work of art, jot down the artist’s name and the title of a work, or even to draw sketches with apps like SketchBook Pro or Adobe Ideas. Had 3G capacities existed, research about the image could be conducted on the spot and incorporated into the writing. With camera technology, a photo could be taken and used for sketching or manipulating to discover features of the work not easily visible or interpretable via the human eye. With all this in place a student could complete a writing assignment on-site, add and identify an image of the work written about, include supporting sketches, and email the finished product to the professor before leaving the facility. Of course none of our students had an iPad.

Grading Tool - Students were instructed to submit papers as Word or PDF documents via email. These were opened in Pages or iAnnotate on iPad. When we took a train ride into London, I pulled out iPad, opened up the papers and graded them during the journey. Pages enabled me to type comments and a grade into each of the papers and email them back to students. This enabled a quick interchange of advice and feedback, an important asset within a study abroad setting. Plus, it was a paperless exchange!

In-Field Visual Aid - Often, for our study abroad on-site painting course, we walked out into the countryside or deep into a park to paint, away from resources other than those we brought with us. I took iPad along as a means to pull up images to help students. I had previously gathered a wide variety of examples of historical approaches to the painting of landscapes and cityscapes. These paintings had been assembled in iPhoto on my laptop, placed into albums, and downloaded to my iPad. When I was walking around talking to students about their work, whether in the field or in the classroom, I pulled up examples to demonstrate how other artists had solved similar problems. The students responded very well to this—and were especially surprised to see artworks out along a footpath in Cotswolds or sitting beside the riverbank at Minster Lovell.

Travel Guide - As my plan was for a course-in-a-box, I wanted to eliminate the need for faculty in the future to recreate or re-plan a trip or excursion. So for each excursion I developed a PDF document with maps and notes for each stage of the journey. For trips to London I downloaded maps, added instructions/directions in the form of notes, printed them to PDF, and assembled them into one document. When we made the trip, I was able to pull up the PDF document in GoodReader, refer to maps, negotiate the Underground, and find the facilities we had planned to visit (see the attached document). As the day progressed I used my iPod touch to make notes on timing (how long did we spend in the museum, how long did it take to walk from site 1 to site 2?). The end result was a self-contained excursion, repeatable by anyone who had access to the document. (3G capacities might reduce the need for maps and would permit on-the-spot variation from the itinerary by locating nearby attractions, dining alternatives, etc.)

Textbook - Rather than carry heavy textbooks overseas, I used iPad, downloading Vasari’s Lives of the Artists and using it throughout the trip. I could access the text anywhere I carried iPad—for instance, in front of Vasari’s ceiling mural in the Duomo, Florence, in a train, or at a coffee shop. I read Vasari’s essay on Giotto while we were traveling to see his cycle of murals at the Arena Chapel in Padua. As a test I also downloaded scholarly articles as PDF documents and placed them in GoodReader for easy access during the trip. Certainly this feature facilitates the continuity of scholarly engagement while overseas on study abroad, but it also has implications for the research students may conduct as they engage assignments that are part of their coursework.

I found iPad to be a tremendously useful tool. Its practicality for use within the visual field of art is superior to that of iPod touch—though I still found numerous applications where the iPod was preferable. My advice is to use both devices in tandem, even though this does mean toggling between the two. The iPod is simply more convenient to pull out of a pocket and put into action when traveling about or in a hurry. As we move forward in the university’s mobile initiative, I strongly suggest that iPad be an alternative option for students, especially those studying visual art.

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • Open iPad forums sponsored by the Center for Teaching and Learning.

2010


Mobile Learning Fellows

Utilitarian versus Hedonic Uses of Mobile Devices in Higher Education: All Work and No Play Makes...?

Researcher(s): Brad Crisp, Ph.D.

Email: brad.crisp@acu.edu

Abstract:
This research continued a longitudinal study of ACU’s Mobile Learning Initiative. I surveyed incoming freshmen before the school year to collect data on their academic and technology backgrounds as well as factors determining their device selection (i.e., iPhone versus iPod touch). I then surveyed all freshmen and sophomores to capture expectations early in the fall semester as well as usage and outcomes at the end of fall and spring semesters; these surveys considered both utilitarian (e.g., academic) and hedonic (e.g., social and entertainment) purposes for using mobile devices. I also examined students’ hits to ACU’s mobile portal, m.acu.edu. 

Key Findings: 
Fall results largely replicate prior year results. Across all user groups, attitude toward mobile learning devices as well as perceived device impacts are very positive, and academic usage and impact continue to be lower than social and entertainment. Attitude, impact and usage also vary by device with iPhone users responding more favorably. For example,
students with iPhone had higher usage levels of the mobile portal than iPod touch users. 

Mobile Learning Year Two PPT

 


 

The Impact of Mobile Learning Methods on Graduate Student Engagement

Researcher(s): Jaime Goff, Ph.D.

Email: jaime.goff@acu.edu

Abstract:
Podcasting and course blogs were integrated into two courses in the Department of Marriage and Family Therapy: BMFT 610: Premarital & Marital Therapy and BMFT 651: Sexual Therapy. Comparisons on course evaluations will be made between two groups of students: (1) students who took the courses in previous years when mobile learning methods were not used; and (2) students who took the courses that were enhanced with mobile learning methods during the 2009-2010 academic year. The Student Engagement Survey, a shorter version of the National Survey of Student Engagement, will also be used. Student engagement in the class of 2009, who did not participate in mobile learning initiatives, was compared with student engagement in the classes of 2010 and 2011, who did participate in courses using mobile learning. Student engagement was measured at the beginning and end of the 2009-2010 academic year. Through statistical analysis, it was discovered that there was a significant difference in student engagement between students enrolled in courses using mobile learning methods and courses that did not use mobile learning methods.

Key Findings:

  • Fifty-nine percent of students owned a hand-held device with web access, while 41% did not.
  • Of those who owned hand-held web devices, 67% used their device to access the web on a daily basis, 23% used it occasionally, and 10% rarely used their device for web access.
  • Students were asked questions regarding their perceptions of mobile learning methods:
    • 60% reported increased participation
    • 65% reported increased interest
    • 65% reported increased class quality
    • 90% reported the technology was easy to use.
  • Student engagement was reportedly greater in courses employing mobile learning, in four areas: overall engagement, cooperative learning, cognitive level and personal skills.
  • Seventy percent of students reported a desire to use mobile learning methods more frequently in other classes, and 80% said they would prefer more mobile learning in their graduate program.
  • Ninety-five percent of participants reported an overall positive experience, and all participants believed that their classmates had a positive view of mobile learning methods.

Full Report PDF

VIDEO: "Rich Content for Grad Students" - Do mobile devices have similar impact among rigors of graduate school?

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • Connected Summit 2010. Abilene Christian University. Abilene, TX 2010.
  • ConnectED Open House. Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX 2010.
  • Connecting Minds: Mobile Learning in MFT Education, San Antonio, TX, Texas Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, Jaime D. Goff, Ph.D. & Mathis V. Kennington, MMFT , March 12, 2010
  • The 21st Century Classroom: Mobile Learning in Graduate Education, Washington, DC, American Association of University Professors, Jaime D. Goff, Ph.D., Mathis V. Kennington, MMFT, Scott Perkins, Ph.D., June 12, 2010

Other Publications / Presentations: 

  • The 21st Century Classroom: Mobile Learning in Graduate Education, Washington, DC, American Association of University Professors, Jaime D. Goff, Ph.D., Mathis V. Kennington, MMFT, Scott Perkins, Ph.D., June 12, 2010
  • Connecting Minds: Mobile Learning in MFT Education, San Antonio, TX, Texas Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, Jaime D. Goff, Ph.D. & Mathis V. Kennington, MMFT , March 12, 2010
  • A Campus-Wide Mobile-Learning Initiative at Abilene Christian University. Unites States Army. Abilene, TX, 2010
  • Mobilizing an Institution: How ACU Funded, Implemented, and Evaluated a Campus-Wide Technology Initiative. Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 2010 annual Meeting. Louisville, KY, 2010.
  • Researching Mobile Learning: Lessons Learned from ACU’s Second Year. EDUCAUSE 2010. Anaheim, CA, 2010.

 


 

Reconfiguring an Entry Majors Course Utilizing Mobile Learning Tools on Regular (Daily) Basis

Researcher(s): Mark Phillips, Ph.D.

Email: mark.phillips@coba.acu.edu

Abstract:
To date, most of ACU’s connected learning efforts have involved the addition of one or two tools (e.g. clickers, word clouds, blogs) to an existing class. I propose to restructure an existing course from the ground up, incorporating a full array of connected learning techniques. The objective is to create a full-scale laboratory in which numerous tools can be tried and assessed for effectiveness, benefit to students and faculty, and practicality. The end result will be a detailed analysis of each tool, including strengths and weaknesses. Beyond this global assessment, the proposed format also lends itself well to assessing a variety of specific empirical research questions. For example, most existing research on Personal Response Systems (‘clickers’) has looked at students as a homogenous group, leaving questions about individual learning styles and demographic factors unanswered; this proposal could help us understand why clickers may work better for some learning styles than others. Also, students might complete some quizzes electronically and others on paper, providing a comparison for analysis of both their scores and their attitudes toward the two techniques.

Key Findings:
In reviewing the course experience it appears that the connected learning tools offered the least benefit in the administrative area. This failure was due largely to technical problems. As an example, the process of checking attendance was attempted with a wide variety of device-based solutions; between connection problems, device problems, software problems, and user problems, this seemingly simple process never worked reliably enough to replace traditional methods. 

The study also suggests that the greatest benefits could probably be realized in the teaching area. Probably the highlight of the experience was the class session on business history, in which small groups of students used their devices during class to explore, and then explain to the class, pivotal events in business history. While less flashy than the history lesson, the integration of Responseware also offered enormous benefits in tailoring and targeting the course delivery. 

Full Report PDF

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • Mobile Learning Research Report (2009-2010). Reconfiguring an Entry Majors Course Utilizing Mobile Learning Tools on a Regular (Daily) Basis

Other Publications / Presentations:

  • A Campus-Wide Mobile-Learning Initiative at Abilene Christian University. United States Army. Abilene, TX, 2010.
  • Mobilizing an Institution: How ACU Funded, Implemented, and Evaluated a Campus-Wide Technology Initiative. Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 2010 annual Meeting. Louisville, KY, 2010.
  • Researching Mobile Learning: Lessons Learned from ACU’s Second Year. EDUCAUSE 2010. Anaheim, CA, 2010.
  • ConnectED Open House. Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX, 2001.

 


 

Using Podcasts on Mobile Devices to Support Increased Student Independence in Inquiry-Based Chemistry Labs

Researcher(s): Cynthia Powell, Ph.D.

Email: powellc@acu.edu

Abstract:
In the Fall 2008 semester I ran a pilot project in our General Chemistry labs. The curriculum was rewritten in an inquiry based format and podcasts were prepared in three categories: chemistry calculations, laboratory techniques and experiment specific information. We have collected and analyzed podcast usage and student/TA interaction data from one "iPhone" section and four "regular" sections during which podcasts were not available. Preliminary results affirm the research hypothesis, but the number of students in iPhone section was small and limited to freshmen, raising questions about the generalizability of the results. This fall a larger portion of the General Chemistry population will have iPhone or iPod touch allowing an even numerical and classification distribution in the experimental and control groups. I will repeat the experiment with the following modifications: 1)TAs will be more thoroughly trained in the categorization of interactions, 2) we will collect interactions for individual student lab teams rather than for the sections as a whole and I will use a multilevel analysis approach in data processing, 3) I will categorize the lab experiments by level of required inquiry and use this information in data analysis and 4) I will revise the types of qualitative data that are collected.

Key Findings: 
The results of this study indicate that when pertinent chemistry laboratory podcasts were made available for students to access on demand as an alternative to a traditional pre- laboratory lecture, student research teams consistently accessed them. The analysis indicates that the student research teams in the podcast group had significantly fewer clarifying interactions with an instructor than student research teams in the lecture group.

Students who used podcasts as an alternative to the laboratory lecture performed at the same level on graded assignments as students who received a lecture. There was one statistically significant interaction effect: students who were classified by the lecture instructors as highly motivated and were part of the podcast treatment group had a significantly higher mean course average than the highly motivated students in the lecture treatment group.

These results are an affirmation that podcasts are a viable option as a support for students in general chemistry laboratories and may be a resource that compliments the scaffolding support provided by instructors.

Full Report PDF

Related Publications/Presentations:

  • Mobile Learning Research Report (2009-2010). Podcast Effectiveness as Scaffolding Support for Students Enrolled in First-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory.

Other publications/presentations by Cynthia Powell

 


 

Monitoring the Behavioral and Academic Progress of At-Risk Elementary Students on a Mobile Device Platform

Researcher(s): Jennifer Shewmaker, Ph.D.

Email: jws02b@acu.edu

Abstract:
The goal of the proposed project is to extend student learning by moving student research team members out of the classroom and into the public schools to work with at-risk children while using iPhone/iPod touch application to enhance their learning through the research team experience. This project is proposed to develop an application for use with iPhone/iPod touch in order to increase the efficiency of collecting data and evaluating progress for children in academic and behavioral intervention programs. This project is aimed at developing an application that can be used across the academic setting for professionals such as school psychologists and diagnostic professionals, as well as ACU student research team members. By the end of the funding period, the investigator expects to develop the application program, including a prototype and materials necessary to implement the application and to pilot the application program in the public school setting in order to test the feasibility of the program and provide data regarding its effectiveness in collecting data and monitoring progress in academic intervention programs. The amount of daily data collected will be compared to the same project run without the application the previous year to obtain information regarding the enhancement of progress monitoring. ACU student research team members will use this data to conduct their own research regarding intervention effectiveness, which they will propose to present at undergraduate research conferences.

Key Findings:
The RTI Mobile application was developed in cooperation with an ACU programmer. This application was developed in order to aid in the ease of collecting data for intervention programs in the school setting. The application contains key features needed by a wide variety of professionals to collect and share student progress in areas targeted for intervention and improvement. A change in federal law requires school districts to measure Response to Intervention before referring children with difficulties for special education evaluation. Due to this, there is a need for easy, effective ways to collect data, manage, and share data. The RTI Mobile application is an answer to this need. The RTI Mobile application is an example of research in action, using mobile technology to change the field of education.

Full Report PDF

Development of an Effective Reading Intervention Program PDF

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • ACU Connected Summit 2011. Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX 2011. “Effect of student response systems on student achievement and study time”.
  • National Association of School Psychologists Annual Convention Final Program and Abstract:s. Shewmaker, J.W. Chicago,IL; March 2-6, 2010; “The use of a mobile learning device in progress monitoring for academic and behavior intervention programs”.
  • National Association of School Psychologists Annual Convention. Shewmaker, J.W. and Perkins, T.S. Chicago, IL; March 3, 2010; “The Use of Mobile Learning Devices in Intervention Programs”.
  • National Association of School Psychologists Annual Convention. Shewmaker, J.W., Carter, C., Gibbs, M., Simpson, E., Wilson, K. Chicago, IL; March 4, 2010; “Effectiveness of a Reading Intervention on Student Reading Skills”.
  • Texas Association of School Psychologists Annual Convention. Shewmaker, J.W. Houston, TX; October 9, 2009; “Development and management of an effective reading intervention program”.

Other Publications / Presentations:

  • Mobilizing an Institution: How ACU Funded, Implemented, and Evaluated a Campus-Wide Technology Initiative. Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 2010 annual Meeting. Louisville, KY, 2010.
  • Researching Mobile Learning: Lessons Learned from ACU’s Second Year. EDUCAUSE 2010. Anaheim, CA, 2010
  • National Association of School Psychologists Annual Convention. Chicago, ILL, March 3, 2010.
  • Texas Association of School Psychologists Annual Convention, Houston, TX October 9, 2009.

 


 

The Use of Clickers and Electronic Flashcards on iPhone/iPod touch in a Chemistry Classroom

Researcher(s): Autumn Sutherlin, Ph.D.

Email: autumn.sutherlin@acu.edu

Abstract:
Student handheld response systems (clickers) in various forms have been used in classrooms in an effort to increase student participation and learning. One of the issues with this technology is that there are many different clickers that are often used in various classes. This requires the students to carry and keep up with many devices. An integrated technology such as iPhone/ iPod touch will allow a uniform technology to be used across campus. This study is a follow-up to two previous studies, which examined the use of clickers in the chemistry classroom. This study will focus on the use of iPhone/ iPod touch as a clicker using TurningPoint ResponseWare and how to best use the devices to improve student achievement. This study will also employ another tool available on iPhone/ iPod touch, Emantras ACUmindwire,which gives the students to opportunity to download pre-made flashcards to use as a study tool for the course.

Key Findings:

  • No statistically significant difference was found between the control group (those who used paper and pencil) and the experimental group (those who used clickers) on three of the four sets of quizzes.
  • A majority (85%) of students reported that using clickers in class helped them learn the material more effectively.
  • Students reported feeling their participation increased in class due to the clickers, with students affirming increased participation at 84% post-survey (vs. 61% pre-survey).
  • 90% of students reported having more time to think and being able to participate more fully in class due to the clickers.
  • The percent of students who found technology to be a distraction in the classroom decreased from 24% in the pre-survey to 7% in the post-survey.

Full Report PDF

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • Podcasts as Support for General Science and Biochemistry Laboratories, Cynthia Powell, Ph.D. & Autumn Sutherlin, Ph.D., 2011.
  • ACU Connected Summit 2010. Teaching & Learning with Mobility/Programming (Panel Discussion), Abilene Christian University, Abilene, TX, Feb. 8, 2010.
  • Effect of student response systems on student achievement and study time, Denton, TX, Biennial Conference on Chemical Education, Gordon R. Sutherlin and Autumn L. Sutherlin. Aug. 2, 2010
  • Turning Technology Users Conference. October, 2010. Cambridge, MA

Other Publications / Presentations:

  • A Campus-Wide Mobile-Learning Initiative at Abilene Christian University. Unites States Army. Abilene, TX, 2010.
  • Researching Mobile Learning: Lessons Learned from ACU’s Second Year. EDUCAUSE 2010. Anaheim, CA, 2010.

 2009


Mobile Learning Fellows

Is it Work or Play? Utilitarian versus Hedonic Uses of Converged Mobile Devices in Higher Education

Researcher(s): Brad Crisp, Ph.D.

Email: brad.crisp@acu.edu

Abstract:
Administered an expectation survey, usage survey, and outcomes survey in both fall and spring semesters that considered both utilitarian (e.g., academic) and hedonic (e.g., social and entertainment) purposes for using mobile devices. Also collected data on students' technology backgrounds, factors determining device selection (i.e., iPhone versus iPod touch), and device specific effects.

Key Findings: 
Major factors in device selection (67% chose an iPhone over an iPod touch) include beliefs about the relative usefulness and enjoyment of the devices as well constraints related to affordability, prior contracts (over 80% of prior AT&T customers chose iPhone), and influence of parents. Extremely positive attitude about devices and the ML program across all students over the course of the academic year. Growing differences between iPhone and iPod touch students over the course of the academic year related to attitude, usage, and perceived impact of the program, with iPhone users reporting a more favorable experience. Social and entertainment purposes surpassed academic purposes for self-reported usage and impact.

Mobile Learning Year One PPT

Related publications/ presentations:

 


 

Collaboration with Mobile Technology at ACU

Researcher(s): Brian Burton, Ed.D.

Email: bgb07a@acu.edu

Abstract: 
Through fall semester of 2008, web hits to m.ACU (ACU mobile, my-mobile, packet guide, maps, and nano tools) were examined. The researcher also surveyed 262 freshmen regarding the frequencies of: 1) text messaging, 2) chat/email/IM, 3) using devices to contact (or being contacted by) others about academic work, 4)providing and/or receiving help from others for academic work, and 5) types of communication with others experienced while working on academic tasks, 6)types of help provided to or received from others using mobile devices.

Key Findings:
The use of technology increased collaboration among college student through the use of mobile devices that enhanced communication, content accessibility, and student self-reliance.

Full Report PDF

Related Publications / Presentations:

Other Publications / Presentations:

  • Burton, B. G., Martin, B. N. (2010) Learning in 3D virtual environments: Collaboration and knowledge spirals. Journal of Educational Computing Research, Vol. 43(2) 259-273.
  • American Educational Research Association Convention. Burton, B. G., Martin, B. N.; Denver, CO; 2010; Collaboration and the use of Mobile Devices, paper, PDF.
  • Southwest Educause Convention. Burton, B. G., Mhlanga, F. S; Austin, TX. 2010; Experiences and direction in teaching an undergraduate course in mobile computing, presentation, PDF.
  • Burton, B. G., Mhlanga, F.S. (2010) Best practices: Teaching mobile computing: practices & pitfalls, paper, PDF. Ed-Media Conference of AACE, Toronto, ON.
  • Mobilizing an Institution: How ACU Funded, Implemented, and Evaluated a Campus-Wide Technology Initiative. Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 2010 annual Meeting. Louisville, KY, 2010.
  • Researching Mobile Learning: Lessons Learned from ACU’s Second Year. EDUCAUSE 2010. Anaheim, CA, 2010.
  • Ed-Media Conference of AACE. Tornonto, Ontario 2010.
  • American Education Research Association Convention. Denver, CO, 2010.
  • ACU Undergraduate Research Festival. Abilene Christian University. Abilene, TX 2010.
  • ACU Faculty Enrichment presentation. Abilene Christian University. Abilene, TX 2010.
  • Southwest EDUCAUSE Convention. Austin, TX 2010.

 


 

Student Self-Rated Maturity and Communication Patterns with Friends, Parents, and Teachers

Researcher(s): Matt Dodd, Ph.D.

Email: matt.dodd@acu.edu

Abstract:
The use of an integrated communication device such as iPhone has the potential to increase interaction and efficiency for students. However, just because it's the new technology and has that potential does not mean that we should absolutely use it for our students. At the same time, if we can offer a superior learning experience through the use of iPhone, supported by positive research, then we should use iPhone and other tools to achieve the goal of a superior learning experience.

Specifically, iPhone allows the professor to make telephone calls, send emails, text message, and participate in discussion boards on Blackboard to provide more immediate feedback to students. Students tend to naturally self-select technologies that fit their needs and iPhone includes a large selection of communication methods for the student to interact with professors/instructors.

Key Findings:

  • The results suggest that less mature students are more likely to use a mobile learning device to collaborate with classmates on assignments and activities.
  • More mature students are more likely to use a mobile learning device to interact with professors about coursework, and are more likely to interact and communicate with their parents.
  • Another result from this research suggests that more mature students use their mobile device to communicate with their parents through social networking websites (i.e. Facebook, MySpace, Twitter) significantly more often than the less mature students.

Full Report PDF

Related Publications / Presentations:

  • ACU ConnectEd conference. Maturity level and iPhone/iPod touch Usage. Presented at the, Abilene, TX, 27 February, 2009. 
  • Educause Southwest Regional conference. Maturity level and iPhone/iPod touch Usage. Austin, TX, 17 February, 2010

Other Publications / Presentations:

  • Southern Association of Colleges and Schools 2010 annual Meeting. Mobilizing an Institution: How ACU Funded, Implemented, and Evaluated a Campus-Wide Technology Initiative. Louisville, KY, 2010.
  • EDUCAUSE 2010. Researching Mobile Learning: Lessons Learned from ACU’s Second Year. Anaheim, CA, 2010.

 


 

Using iPhone to Support Student Learning in Inquiry Based Laboratory Experiments

Researcher(s): Cynthia Powell, Ph.D.

Email: powellc@acu.edu

Abstract:
General chemistry laboratories can be a challenge for students with weak backgrounds in laboratory techniques and calculation methods. We produced brief podcast tutorials that covered essential laboratory topics for our students to access during the laboratory period as needed on iPhone or iPod touch. The podcasts replaced the traditional laboratory lecture in one laboratory section. Data were collected on the types and numbers of interactions between the teaching assistants and students during each inquiry based laboratory session for five different sections. Our data indicate that students used the podcasts frequently and t-test results show that students in iPhone/iPod section had to be redirected or corrected significantly fewer times than students who received the same information in a traditional lab lecture format.

Key Findings:
iPhone/iPod touch students (1 section) slightly outperformed non-device student sections (4) on all 5 academic performance measures which are used in assigning course grades [not statistically significant differences]. Students in iPhone/iPod touch section found multiple additional (unanticipated) uses for their devices in the Chemistry lab environment (flashlight, timer, periodic table, etc.) A number of demographic differences between device and non-device sections were observed (gender, classification, major),but ACT scores were virtually equivalent. Equivalent performance across sections in this highly-successful program of study is seen as a major success in terms of transition to a new learning platform (with a nearly unlimited potential for advancements) with clearly no loss of student performance and content mastery.

Full Report PDF

Related Publications / Presentations:

Other publications/presentations by Cynthia Powell