Restoration Quarterly Vol. 1 No. 1 (1957): 21-31

 

The Ministry of the Word in the First Two Centuries

Everett Ferguson

The ministry of the church may be divided into three phases — the ministry of the Word, of benevolence, and of oversight. One of the specialized meanings of "ministry" (diakonia) in the New Testament refers to the dispensing of the gospel. Although some overlapping of functions occurs, the topic of this study is as follows: "Who did the preaching and teaching of the Word of the Lord in the early church?"

According to Paul’s description of the church as a "body" in 1 Cor. 12 it is clear that every member was a "minister" (servant) of the whole body. However, the same chapter also demonstrates a place for different types of ministers with their own specialty. Those formally designated for a position of service in the church were spoken of as holding an "office." Filling an office indicated, not the possession of authority, but rather, designation to perform a work; an office was a function, a responsibility.1 The evidence shows that any Christian man with the requisite ability and knowledge could speak in the public assembly and teach the gospel to others.2 This study is concerned with those who possessed the necessary "gifts" or qualifications and received formal recognition from the church to do the public work of teaching.

In the New Testament there is a two-fold distinction made with reference to minister — between local officers and those not bound to a local congregation, and between inspired and uninspired teachers. New Testament congregations passed through three stages of growth: (1) A time when they were served by extraordinary (inspired) ministers; (2) a time when a dual ministry of both inspired and uninspired men were the dispensers of the Word; and (3) a time when the uninspired ministry intended to be permanent in the churches existed alone. Since not all congregations passed through these stages at the same time, many have been able to find a basis for arguing that there was no uniformity in the New Testament in regard to the ministry. As an illustration, an untrained observer on viewing an exhibit of the metamorphosis of a butterfly might conclude that the egg, caterpillar, chrysalis, and butterfly were four different species. However, on reading the description he would learn that he was examining four different stages in the life span of the same insect.

The first public ministers of the church possessed charismata, "spiritual gifts" supernaturally given. These are named as "apostles, prophets, and teachers" in 1 Cor. 12:28. They were called and equipped for their task by the Lord through the activity of the Holy Spirit, they served the church universal, and they filled an office that did not have to be occupied anew after their death.

Although the word "apostles" had a wider meaning of "one sent on a mission,"3 it had primary reference to the Twelve and Paul4 who were distinguished from all others by having a special call from the Lord and by having the gift of plenary inspiration in revealing the will of the Lord to men.5 In keeping with their special qualifications, their responsibilities included bearing testimony of Christ, revealing the essential truths of the Plan of Salvation, and enacting all the necessary ordinances for the church.6

The New Testament prophets were closely associated with the Apostles in revealing the foundation truths of the gospel.7 They not only revealed the counsels and purposes of God, as shown by Eph. 3:4f, but 1 Cor. 14 shows their gift of prophecy also qualifying them to lead in Christian worship, to exhort and edify the church, to unfold the meaning of the oracles of God, and to distinguish the Word of God from the word of men. The point of distinction between the Apostles and prophets appears to have been that the inspiration of the Apostles was abiding,8 for they were the infallible and authoritative messengers of Christ; whereas the inspiration of the prophets was occasional and transient.9 Neither did the prophets have the "care of all the churches"10 which the Apostles had. Part of a prophet’s work was in his own community11 and part was elsewhere.12

Whereas the prophet received revelations of the divine will and gave messages in behalf of another, the teacher was closely associated with him13 in making exposition and application to life of the revealed truth. A careful exegesis of 1 Cor. 14:6 shows that he who received a revelation was a prophet and he who had "the word of knowledge" was a teacher.14 The teacher had a rich background in the 3udaism of the first century, for the many "Rabbis" had the practical, personal task of leading individuals to live their lives 1-n full accord with the will of God. The inspired instructors in the faith fulfilled this purpose (didasko) both by exhortation in the meeting for edification as seen in l Cor. 14:26 and by the class instruction (katecheo) envisioned in Gal. 6:6.

Teaching occupied a prominent place in the assemblies of the New Testament church for worship — Acts 2:4215; 1 Cor. 14; Acts 20:7ff; 13:1f.16 Instruction took the form of a single discourse or several shorter messages.

Ephesians 4:11 lists the ministers of the church at a time of transition. Here the reference is to the men who were given to the church; in 1 Cor. 12 it is to the functions placed in the church. Those who labored in the ministry of the Word now included evangelists, who served the church universal,17 and pastors, who served a local church. These were men whose task did not necessarily require a miraculous gift of the Spirit, and thus it is possible to see the preparation made for the time when the church would function without direct guidance from the Spirit. The pastors are to be identified with those elsewhere in Scripture called elders (presbyters) or bishops, as the Greek of Acts 20:2,8 and 1 Pet. 5:1ff demonstrates. Very early the Apostles began choosing a college of elders to oversee congregations.18 As soon as qualified men appeared (sooner in Jewish than in predominantly Gentile churches) they were set apart to form the nucleus of a local ministry to guide the churches once the Apostles were removed from the scene. Likewise, Paul early began to gather around himself men like Timothy and Titus who were trained to continue the work of preaching the gospel. 2 Tim. 4:5 shows that "evangelist" was a technical term for this class of workers in the church. As "bearers of glad tidings" the evangelists were primarily functionaries of the church universal, but in laboring to win new converts they both traveled about or settled for a time in one place.19

In the letters of 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus there is a description of the last stages of organization through which the churches of Christ passed in New Testament times. This arrangement gave a permanent answer to the needs of the church. At the beginning the functions of oversight, benevolence, and teaching had all been entrusted to the Apostles. These activities were now distributed to bishops, deacons, and evangelists, respectively, but not exclusively or categorically. It was necessary for the continuance of the church that the essential functions of ministry be identified with certain offices. That these offices provide for the necessary activities in the church shows their permanent intention and permanent validity as a form of church organization. Other offices — e.g., that of Apostles and prophets-requiring a special "gift" ceased when that gift ceased.

The New Testament gives indication of a large number of congregations under the supervision of a council of presbyter-bishops.20 The non-canonical literature nearest to the New Testament reveals the same situation.21 That Apostles appointed elders in all the churches, gave qualifications for filling this office, and commanded others to appoint qualified men to the position shows that elders were intended to be permanent in the church. The primary task of these workers as shepherds of men’s souls demanded that a large share of the ministry of the Word fall on them. Indications of their public teaching role are found in 1 Tim. 3:2; 5:17; Titus 1:9; Acts 20; Eph. 4:11f. Toward the close of New Testament times as the gift of prophecy became less frequent and visits from the missionary ministry less certain, teaching naturally fell more and more to the local leadership.

The evangelistic office likewise exists in the nature of things as long as the church feels the press of the Great Commission. That Paul continued until his death to choose other evangelists and instruct them in the work of preaching further demonstrates that he felt the need of a continuous supply of men prepared for the work of an evangelist.22 The evangelist’s work of preaching the gospel Included strengthening the faith of those already converted, refuting false doctrine, instructing the church, and organizing congregations.23 Their task was pre-eminently one of teaching and preaching-reproving, rebuking, and exhorting. They might stay for a time with a church fully organized (as Timothy at Ephesus), but Titus 3:12f and 2 Tim. 4:10, 12 indicate that apparently Paul saw a value in frequently changing places of labor.

Although bishops and evangelists were the most prominent servants of the Word, the preliminary observations on all Christians as ministers should not be forgotten. ‘Uninspired teachers had a place in the pennanent work of the church.24 Moreover, in keeping with the general freedom of Apostolic times, much teaching was done by women.25 However, this teaching was confined to situations where the woman did not assert herself over men, for teaching in the public assembly was specifically denied to women.26

As one moves to the sub-apostolic and second century literature he finds that the significant developments in regard to the ministry involved changes in the organization of the church. Three stages of departure from the New Testament pattern may be outlined: (1) There was first a decline in the universal or missionary ministry leaving the local officers in control of the entire church; (2) almost simultaneously there emerged a single bishop distinguished from the presbytery; and (3) the monarchial bishop’s27 position was strengthened to meet the challenges of Gnosticism and Montanism. Several factors, some unintentional and some deliberate, contributed to these changes. Before developing them, a survey should be made of the understanding of the second century church in regard to the functionaries (save elders) already mentioned.

The word "Apostle" continued to have occasional use in its wider meaning, including reference to those who were associates of the Apostles.28 However, its overwhelming usage was limited to, the Twelve (including Paul) — e.g. in Clement,29 Ignatius,30 Justin,31 and Irenaeus.32 The second century evidence confirms what was found in the New Testament: The Apostolate died with the Twelve and Paul. Some of their functions were regarded by the early church as having been perpetuated in others, but to what was distinctive about them — the gift of authoritative teaching and the special call by Jesus — no one could succeed. No one called a contemporary, not even the bishops who were regarded as successors of the Apostles, by the title "Apostle."

The prophetic order was at its peak in the Didache, which on the whole gives a picture of the ministry not unlike that found in the New Testament. The prophet presided at the Lord’s Table, was entitled to have his words obeyed, and was the only person privileged to abide within the community without earning his support by his own labor. Since their gift was for the whole church, they might travel or settle as they chose.33 Ignatius34 and perhaps Hermas35 claimed to have the prophetic gift. But shortly after this time prophecy is recognized by the church as a thing of the past. Although Justin36 and Irenaeus claim that prophets’ were still present, it was a matter of hearsay with them. The work against Montanism37 which Eusebius quotes under the name of Miltiades from the second century gives a list of those who prophesied under the new covenant. The writer can give no names beyond Ammia of Philadelphia and Quadratus, who at the latest cannot be placed after the first quarter of the second century.38. "Prophets" as a class would not have been so regularly used without qualification referring to those of the Old Testament if prophets were a common thing in the writer’s own day. Unlike the New Testament usage, when Christian prophets are referred to it is always with some specifying expression. Moreover, the polemic of the church against Montanism’s attempt to revive prophecy proceeded on the tacit assumption of the extinction of the prophets. (Likewise the frenzied type prophecy of Montanus was considered false because it did not correspond to the rule of Paul in 1 Cor. 14:32.39)

In the second century literature teachers do not appear as inspired men (e.g. in Didache they did not have to be tested whether they spoke in the Spirit). A large number of them are favorably mentioned as traveling from place to place, instructing the faithful and preaching to new converts.40 Most notable of these was Justin Martyr who included within his activities the establishment of a Christian school similar to the numerous contemporary ones of philosophy.41. Teachers maintained their position longer than any other group not included within the local organization of a congregation. At Alexandria the institution of teachers survived the longest side by side with the episcopal organization of the churches.42 The life of Origen (the most illustrious figure of the Catechetical school at Alexandria) was the unsuccessful, final struggle of a free "Teacher of the Word" to keep the ministry of the Word from being completely submerged under episcopal domination.

After the New Testament a complete black-out hangs over the word "evangelist," until the writings of Tertullian, and his references to the word are not helpful in telling the place of the evangelist in the second century.43 Eusebius mentions evangelists a number of times as carrying on the activities associated with this class of men in the New Testament, but he is sufficiently vague to indicate that his was not first and knowledge.44 Many of those called teachers also sound like evangelists, to that it is possible that there was a progressive convergence of these terms in the second century.45

The Apostles had sought to give the church a strong local organization. In the years overlapping the end of the first and the beginning of the second century the church went too far in this direction, at the expense of the missionary ministry. Schismatical and heretical tendencies threatened the church46 domestic factions had appeared;47 and even the presbyters in some cases were falling away.48 The most serious problem came from the large number of false teachers who were spreading their doctrines under the guise of the revered prophets and evangelists. First John 4:1-6 from the New Testament shows the need for the test since many false prophets had gone out into the world. The Didache and Hermas apply more elaborate tests. This fact alone is evidence of the real challenge from false prophets. The church took two steps to meet this challenge. One is reflected in the Didache: The local ministry assumed the place of the prophetic ministry. Every inducement was given to prophets to settle down, and apparently many did.49 The many false teachers in time caused the whole itinerant ministry to fall into disrepute. No doubt one reason that the church was having so much trouble from false prophets was the fact that the true prophets were beginning to disappear. It appears from the literature’s silence that evangelists and teachers had either joined the trend to settle locally or were devoting themselves entirely to laboring in new fields. The Didache is significant for the future in representing the honor of the ministry of the Word being transferred to the local officers.50 The congregations looked to those local leaders whom they knew from permanent residence (and in many cases were of apostolic appointment) for sound doctrine. Coinciding with this development was a move in the direction of good order by an insistence on obedience to the local ministry. This is the theme of Clement’s epistle.51 However correct may have been his insistence on obedience in the particular situation at Corinth, the letter represents a type of thinking that was later to make office-bearers actually "generals" and "priests" instead of shepherds of men’s souls, and thus there is the beginning of an "institutional" idea of the church.

The next stage through which the ministry of the early church passed was marked by the rise of the monarchial bishop beginning in the early second century. The first step in this process was the beginning of a differentiation of function within the local presbyteries. This may be reflected in some passages in Hermas52 and would have involved the regular assigning of certain duties to one of the presbyters who was the "overseer" (episkopos) of this work. The next step was the full recognition of one man in each congregation as the "bishop" with this name exclusively his. This is the situation in Asia Minor reflected in the letters of Ignatius, the early church’s leading proponent of mon-episcopacy. This statement in his epistle to the Smyrneans, section VIII, is typical: "See that you all follow the bishop, as Jesus Christ follows the Father, and the presbytery as if it were the Apostles. And reverence the deacons as the command of God." Ignatius saw the bishop as a necessary symbol of unity in a church threatened by division; for him an office does constitute the church and is necessary for its existence.53 There has been a mistaken tendency to read into Ignatius the whole episcopal organization of the fourth century. However, the bishop is not yet a distinct order; he is chief of (and not over) the presbyters, a "chairman of the board" as it were whose position was bound up with that of the other office-bearers.54 The church followed the advice of this fiery preacher as to the way to face its problems posed by persecution from without and false teaching from within. By the mid-century the monarchial bishop was a general feature of the church throughout the Empire. The writings of Hegesippus, Irenaeus, and Tertullian make this certain. It is likely that the "president" of the assembly who preaches the sermon and has charge of alms, in Justin’s description of a worship service,55 is such a proto-bishop.

The evidence shows that the later bishop was connected with two 1ines of ancestry — the presbyterial and the apostolic, the former from which he came and the latter whose position he assumed. The second century bishop had two outstanding characteristics — the right of ordination and the right of giving authoritative teaching.56 These had been the functions respectively of Apostles and evangelists, and of Apostles and other inspired men. Although the bishop assumed the duties of Apostolic men, the sources point to his having arisen out of the body of presbyters. Irenaeus regularly calls bishops by the name "presbyter."57 Bishops for some time were regularly chosen from the presbytery and save for ordination the duties of the two largely remained the same.58 Putting the evidence together mon-episcopacy may be connected with the virtual disappearance of evangelists as separate workers in established churches in that wherever the Ignatian type of presbytery prevailed, the local presbytery bad itself produced a personal organ with which the evangelist’s functions could be combined. When the evangelists, prophets, and others of the universal ministry began to lose prominence or fall under suspicion because of the traveling false teachers, it was natural that much of the prestige they held and many of their duties would have gone to the newly developed bishop. A local man was a better guarantee of correct teaching than the wandering ministers with no certain credentials. By its adaptability to the new situation it is understandable that mon-episcopacy should have carried the day. Although several factors no doubt contributed to the distinguishing of one man as the bishop, a prominent one would have been the choice of the best qualified man to handle the public teaching. This would fit naturally into the future development that made the bishop’s chair "the symbol of teaching."59

The final stage of this development was reached at the close of the second century when the position of the single bishop over each church was greatly strengthened by the doctrine of apostolic succession. Once again the change was related to a reaction against a serious problem. The second century was the setting for two great struggles of the church — with Gnosticism60 and with Montanism. The Gnostic teachers advanced the claim to have received a secret tradition of more authentic Christianity handed down from the Apostles through a succession of private teachers. Irenaeus gave the counter-claim of those who were orthodox in doctrine.61 He emphasized the "succession" of the bishops in the churches founded by Apostles as official and authoritative teachers of the true doctrine. Each of these bishops had in turn taken over from his predecessor the same cathedra (chair) to impart from it the same teaching. The stability of the doctrine of the bishops in a church was guaranteed by its publicity; its correctness was guaranteed by its consent with the teaching given from the "teacher’s chairs" of all other churches. This standard of orthodoxy could be used to supersede an appeal to Scripture, as it was by Tertullian.62 Apostolic succession at first was from "holder to holder" of the office, not from consecrator to consecrated as it became. With this doctrine it is clear that the bishop now constituted a separate order. He was over the presbyters and was not dependent on them for his position. When Irenaeus wrote, the doctrine of apostolic succession of bishops was concerned solely with the bishop’s qualification to act as an authoritative teacher. Teaching seems to have become less and less the duty of presbyters.

Montanism arose as a protest against the growing ecclesiasticism and accommodation of the church to the world. It saw in the recovery of prophecy the way to recover the primitive purity of the church. The church catholic, however, reacted against the extremes of Montanism and went further in the direction of institutionalizing the church. The bishop’s position was further enhanced. Having begun as a teacher, he had become a successor to the Apostles over against Gnosticism, and now over against Montanism he became a successor to the prophet. The chief significance of this controversy for this study is seen in the fact that the gift of the Spirit was now regarded as the bishop’s official (although not personal) possession. Position now validated one’s preaching.63

All three functions of the ministry — oversight, benevolence, and teaching — were once more centered in the control of one official, contrary to the design of Apostolic ordinance.64

 

Notes

1 1 Tim. 3:1; Rom. 12:4.

2 Acts 8:4; Rom. 12:6ff; 15:4; Phil. 1:14; Heb. 5:12.

3 2 Cor. 8:23; Acts 14:14.

4 Acts 6:2, 6; Rev. 21:14; Gal: 1; 2.

5 Luke 6:13; Gal. 1:1; John 16:13; Gal. 1:11f.

6 Acts 4:33; 2 Cor. 5:18ff; Matt. 19:28; 18:18.

7 Eph. 2:20.

8 John 20:21f.

9 1 Cor. 14:30.

10 2 Cor. 11:28.

11 1 Cor. 14.

12 Cf. Agabus.

13 Acts 13:1.

14 Cf. Archibald Robertson and Alfred Plummer, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the First Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians (International Critical Commentary; New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1911), p.308.

15 Most lexicons take "teaching" in this verse as active, so that it may be paraphrased "They gave steadfast attention to the teaching of the Apostles." Cf. a similar translation by F. J. A. Hort, The Christian Ecclesia (London: MacMillan and Co., 1897), p.44.

16 The leitourgia of this verse on the analogy of Rom. 15 :16 would include teaching.

17 i.e., their office was not bound to a local congregation; in this respect they were like the Apostles and prophets. Such phrases as "universal ministry" and "missionary ministry" have been used to express this concept although it is realized that they are not wholly adequate terms.

The list of officers may be grouped as follows: Apostles and prophets from one category in 2:20 (as the organs for the revelation of Christ’s will they constituted the foundation of the church— personal successors for them were no more needed than a successor was needed for Christ as the cornerstone); evangelists found their place in enlarging the church through the making and strengthening of new converts; pastors and teacher as local instructors are grouped in one category in 4:11.

18 Acts 11:30; 14:23; 15:6.

19 Cf. Philip who did both— Acts 8 and 21:8.

20 Acts 15:6; 11:30; 14:23; Acts 20:17, 28 and 1 Tim. 3; Phil. 1:1; Titus 1:5-7; James 1:1 and 5:14; 1 Peter 1:1 and 5:1ff.

21 Didache XV:1. "The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles" is a manual of church life, organization, and institutions originating probably in Syria and widely influential in the early centuries of the chuich. Its view of the ministry definitely suggests a date not far from the turn of the century.

1 Clement 42:4. First Clement is a letter from the church at Rome written by Clement to the church in Corinth about A.D. 96 or 97.

Hermas, Vis. III:v. 1 "The Shepherd of Hermas" is a lengthy collection of Visions, Mandates, and Similitudes written by an otherwise unknown member of the Roman church named Hermas. The sections on the ministry would fit a date about A.D. 110 for this queer collection.

22 Cf. 2 Tim. 2:2 where Paul has Timothy’s equals in mind.

23 1 Tim. 1:5ff; 4:6; Titus 1:5; etc.

24 James 3:1.

25 Titus 2:3f; 1 Cor. 11:5; Acts 21:9.

26 1 Cor. 14:34ff; 1 Tim. 2:12.

27 The term "monarchial bisbop" refers to the situation where one bishop emerged at the head of a single congregation. "Mon-episcopacy" is also used in the same sense in this article.

28 Clement of Alexandria, head of the catechetical school in that city at the close of the second century, so uses the word in Strom. IV :17.

29 1 Clement XLIV.

30 Tral. 111:1. Ignatius was "bishop" of Antioch who wrote seven letters while being carried across Asia Minor on his way to martyrdom in Rome about 117.

3l Apol. I xxxix; xlix; Dial. XLII. Justin wrote at the middle of the second century an Apology to the Emperor and a Dialogue with the Jew Trypho.

32 Adv. Haer. II :xxi; II :i; IV:xxiiif. Irenacus was first presbyter and then bishop of Lyons in Gaul. About 180 he wrote his great work against the heresy of Gnosticism.

33 Did. XI, XIII.

34 Philad. VIII.

35 Mand. XII:iii :3.

36 Dial. LXXXII.

37 In the last quarter of the second century Montanus claimed to have received the Holy Spirit and sought to purify the church by a revival of prophecy.

38 H. E. V :xvii :2. Eusebius of Caesarea wrote a Church History about 325 valuable for the fragments of earlier literature which it preserves.

39 H. E. V:xvi:7.

40 Dial. LXXXII: Contra Cels. III:ix. The latter is an apology written by Origen, active in the early third century and the most learned man in the ancient church.

41 Acts of Justin.

42 Contra Cels. IV:lxxii.

43 De Praesc. IV; De Corona IX. Tertullian was a prolific writer in Latin both as a presbyter at Carthage and later as a Montanist.

44 H.E. II:iii:lf; III:xxxvii; V:x:2.

45 This view is suggested by J. Massie, "Evangelist," A Dictionary of the Bible (ed. by James Hastings; New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1908), I:797.

46 Revelation and the letters of Ignatius.

47 Clement and Ignatius to the Philadelphians.

48 Polycarp (early second century bishop of Smyrna) to the Philippians.

49 Did. XIII.

50 "Appoint thcrefore for yourselves bishops and deacons worthy of the Lord . . . for they also minister to you the ministry of the prophets and teachers. Therefore do not despise them, for they are your honorable men together with the prophets and teachers." XV:lf.

51 "The Apostles . . . preached from district to district, and from city to city, and they appointed their first converts, testing them by the Spirit, to be bishops and deacons of the future believers. . . They appointed those who have been mentioned, and afterwards added the codicil that if they should fall asleep, other approved men should succeed to their ministry. We consider therefore that it is not just to remove from their ministry those who were appointed by them, or later on by other eminent men, with the consent of the whole Church, and have ministered to the flock of Christ without blame." XLIV. Cf. LIV and LVII.

52 Vis. II:iv:2f; II:v:1; Sim. IX:xxvii,lf; VIII:vii:4.

53 Tral. 111:1; Eph. IV:1; Mag. VII:1.

54 Eph. I, II, XIII:7; Mag. II, XI; Philad. XI, X, Smyrn. IV, XI.

55 Apol. I:lxvii.

56 Cf. the Refutation of All Heresies I Pref. and Apostolic Tradition 1:9 both by Hippolytus, early third century schismatic bishop of Rome who gives much information on the organization of the church in the second century.

57 Adv. Haer. II :ii :4; Ep. ad Florin in H. E. V:xx:7.

58 Another influence toward mon-episcopacy may have come from the settlement of some prophet or evangelist in a given community. An indication that perhaps not all bishops arose out of the presbytery may be seen in this statement by Origen: "Consider . . . how in some towns where as yet there are no Christians, someone arrives, and begins to teach, works, instructs, leads to the faith, and finally becomes the ruler and bishop of his pupils." Horn. on Num. 11:4.

59 Irenaeus’ term in the Demonstration of Apostolic Preaching, II.

60 Gnosticism is a term for a number of different syncretistic religious philosophies which had some fundamental ideas in common. These included a belief that matter was intrinsically evil, the world was created by an evil Demiurge and not by the Father, and the aim of true religion is to bring deliverance of the spirit from the body.

61 Adv. Haer. III.

62 Praes. XV, XXI.

63 Adv. Haer. IV :xxvi :2; II xxiv :1; Praes. XXXVIII.

64 Cf. the Apostolic Tradition of Hippolytus.

 

Selected Bibliography

Easton, B. S., Translator and Editor. The Apostolic Traditions of Hippolytus. Canibridge: University Press, 1954.

Roberts, Alexander, and Donaldson, James, Editors. The Ante-Nicene Fathers. American Edition by A. C. Coxe. Reprint Edition in 10 volumes. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1950.

Schaff, Philip, and Wace, Henry, Editors. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathcrs. Series II. Volume I. Grand Rapids: Win. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1952.

Milligan, Robert. The Scheme of Redemption. Twelfth Printing. St. Louis: Christian Board of Publication.

Lindsay, T. M. The Church and the Ministry in the Early Centuries. Second Edition. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1903.

Lightfoot, J. B., Saint Paul’s Epistle to the Philippians. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1953.

Streeter, B. H. The Primitive Church. New York: MacMillan Co., 1929. (Liberal view.)

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