Subordinate Conjunctions

Function

 

place or

location

wo- where

direction

origin

woher- (from) where

destination

wohin- (to) where

extension

soweit- as, so far as, insofar as

time

point in time

als - when, as

wie - as

duration

solange - as long as

während - while

indes (geh.) - while

repetition

sooft - as often as

wenn - whenever, when

referring to previous events

als - when

nachdem - after

seitdem - since

sobald - as soon as

wie -

wenn

referring to impending events

bis - until

bevor - before

ehe - before

cause, reason

concessive (insufficientreason)

obgleich - even though, although

obschon

obwohl

obzwar

wenn auch

wenngleich

wennschon

wiewohl; as well as

ohne daß (negative) - without

es sei denn, dass - unless

conditional (possiblereason)

falls - if

wenn - if

sofern - provided (that)

wo(fern) (old) - if

angenommen (daß)

im Falle daß - in the case that

vorausgesetzt daß - assuming that

causal (actual reason)

da - because, since

weil - because

deswegen weil - because

umsomehr als - all the more considering or as

zumal (decisive reason) - especially or particularly as, since

purpose,

consequence

final (purpose, goal)

damit - so that

daß - that

auf daß (elevated style) (old) - that

um (w/infinitive phrase) - in order to

consecutive (consequence,

effect)

daß - that

so daß - so that

weshalb - why

ohne (w/inf. clause) - without

ohne daß (non-occurring consequence) - without + gerund

als daß (impossible consequence) - too + adj. + to + inf.

manner

comparative

wie (equality) - as

als (inequality) - than

soviel (degree) - as much

soweit (degree) - as far

wie wenn (comparison within fact) - as when

als ob (comparison contrary to fact) - as if or though

als wenn (comparison contrary to fact) - as if or though

adversative (contrast)

während - while

indes - however

indessen - however

wohingegen - whereas, while

(an)statt (w/inf) - instead of + gerund

statt daß (substitute) - instead

instrumental (means,

accompanyingcircumstance)

indem - by, while

dadurch daß - by + gerund + that

ohne daß (negative) - without + gerund

proportion

je . . . desto - the . . . the (the + comparative + the + comparative)

je . . . je - the . . . the (the + comparative + the + comparative)

je . . . umso - the . . . the (the + comparative + the + comparative)

umso . . . je- the . . . the (the + comparative + the + comparative)

je nachdem - depending on