Pronouns & Adjectives

Personal Pronouns Relative Pronouns Definite Articles
Interrogative Pronouns Reflexive Pronouns Indefinite Articles
Demonstrative Pronouns Possessive Pronouns Adjectives with no Articles
Adjectives with Definite Articles Adjectives with Indefinite Articles    

 

Personal pronouns must agree with their antecedent in number and gender. Their case must be appropriate for their use in the sentence.


Personal Pronouns

Singular

Person1st2nd3rd (m.)3rd (n.)3rd (f.)2nd

Nom.

 

ich
I

du

you (s. fam.)

er

he, it

es

it (she)

sie

she, it

Sie

you (for.)

Acc.

 

mich

me

dich

you

ihn

him, it

es

it (her)

sie

her, it

Sie

you

Dat.

mir
me

dir
you

ihm
him, it

ihm
it (her)

ihr
her, it

Ihnen
you

Gen.*meinerdeinerseinerseinerihrerIhrer



Plural

Person1st2nd3rd (all genders)2nd

Nom.

 

wir

we 

ihr

you

sie

they

Sie

you

Acc.

 

uns

us

euch

you

sie

them

Sie

you

Dat.

 

uns

us

euch

you 

ihnen

them

Ihnen

you

Gen.unsereuerihrerIhrer


*Genitive forms of personal pronouns are very rare.

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Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative Pronouns exist in the singular only.

Nom.wer
who
was
what
Acc.wen
whom
was
what
Dat.wem
whom
___
Genwessen
whose
wes,
wessen
of
which


welcher (which)see demonstrative pronouns
was für ein (what kind of)ein is declined according to its use in the sentence

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns in English are who, whom, whose, which, that.
They must agree with their antecedent in gender and number, and their case must be appropriate for their use in the sentence.

 masc.neut.fem.pl.
Nom.derdasdiedie
Acc.dendasdiedie
Dat.demdemderdenen
Gen.dessendessenderenderen


Use wer and was if the antecedents are not defined precisely. Forms of welcher are used sometimes in writing.


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Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject and object of a sentence indicate the same person or thing. Reflexives must agree with the subject in number. Their use in the sentence determines their case.

Singular

 1st pers.2nd pers.3rd pers.2nd pers. formal
Acc.michdichsichsich
Dat.mirdirsichsich
Gen.meiner
deiner
seiner
selbst
ihrer selbst
Ihrerselbst

 

Plural

 1st pers.2nd pers.3rd pers.2nd pers. formal
Acc.unseuchsichsich
Dat.unseuchsichsich
Gen.unsereuchihrer selbstIhrer selbst

Definite Articles

 masc. neut. fem. pl.
Nom.der das die die
Acc.den das die die
Dat.dem dem der den -n*
Gen.des -(e)s** des -(e)s der der


*Add an "n" to all nouns in the dative plural except those ending in an "s" or an "n".
**Special der words (such as Herr), which add "en" everywhere except the nominative, do not add an "s" or "es".
Der-words, words which follow the definite article paradigm, include definite articles and demonstrative pronouns.


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Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns have the same function and decline the same way as definite articles. The singular masculine form is the dictionary form. 

 masc.neut.fem.pl.
Nom.dieser dieses diese diese
Acc.diesen dieses diese diese
Dat.diesem diesem dieser diesen
Gen.dieses dieses dieser dieser


Demonstrative pronouns include the following:
dieser - this
mancher - some
jeder - each, every
solcher - such
jener - that
welcher - which



Indefinite Articles

 

 masc.neut.fem.pl.
Nom.eineineine keine
Acc.einen eineine keine
Dat.einem einem einer keinen -n*
Gen.eines -(e)s eines -(e)s einer keiner


*Add an "n" to all nouns in the dative plural except those ending in an "s" or an "n".
Ein-words, words which follow the indefinite article paradigm, include ein, kein, and the possessives (mein, dein, sein, ihr, unser, euer, andIhr). The following words also function as indefinite articles: indefinite numerals (andere, einige, mehrere, viele, and wenige) and alle.

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns in German have the same function and decline the same way as indefinite articles. Therefore, think of these words as the stem, or root word, onto which an ending is usually added.

singularplural
mein - my, mineunser - our, ours
dein - your, yourseuer - your, yours
sein - his, its
ihr - her, hers
ihr - their, theirs
Ihr - your, yours


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Adjectives with Definite Articles

 

 masc.neut.fem.pl.
Nom.der gute Mann das gute Buchdie gute Fraudie guten Leute
Acc.den guten Manndas gute Buchdie gute Fraudie guten Leute
Dat.dem guten Manndem guten Buchder gute Frauden guten Leuten
Gen.des guten Mannes des guten Buchesder gute Frauder guten Leute



Adjectives with Indefinite Articles

 

 masculineneuterfeminineplural
Nom.ein guter Mannein gutes Bucheine gute Fraukeine guten Leute
Acc.einen guten Mannein gutes Bucheine gute Fraukeine guten Leute
Dat.einem guten Manneinem guten Bucheiner guten Fraukeine guten Leuten
Gen.eines guten Mannes eines guten Buches einer guten Fraukeiner guten Leute



Adjectives with no Articles

 

 masculineneuterfeminineplural
Nom.guter Kuchenfrisches Brotkalte Milchfrische Würste
Acc.guten Kuchenfrisches Brotkalte Milchfrische Würste
Dat.gutem Kuchenfrischem Brotkalter Milchfrischen Würsten
Gen.guten Kuchens frischen Brotes kalter Milchfrischer Würste

 

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Adjective Endings