Coordinate Conjunctions

Function

 

Coordinate Conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions

Adverbial Connectors

sequence, amplifica-tion, expansion

additive

und - and

sowohl . . . als auch - both . . . and, as well as

sowohl . . . wie auch - both . . . and, as well as

nicht nur . . . sondern auch - not only . . . but also (stressed additive)

weder . . . noch - neither . . . nor (negative additive)

zunächst - first

explicative

und auch - and also

geschweige denn - much less, never mind (negative explicative)

außerdem - moreover

dazu - in addition, with it, to it, for it, etc.

überdies - moreover, furthermore

zudem - moreover, furthermore, in addition

so wie- as well as

ja - even

ja sogar - even (stressed explicative)

geschweige daß - let alone, never mind, much less

ohnehin - anyway

contrast

alternative

oder - or

oder auch - or even

entweder . . . oder - either . . . or (emphatic)

 

adversative

aber - but

dagegen - on the other hand, however

hingegen - however, on the other hand

comparative

als (denn) - than (unequal)

wie - as (equal)

 

anders als - different from

corrective

zwar aber - it's true, but

doch - but

jedoch - however

sondern - rather (corrective after negative statement)

sondern vielmehr - rather much more (see )

aber vielmehr - but much more (corrective after positive statement)

allein - however, but

nur - only, just (stressing a limitation)

allerdings - though (polite limitation)

freilich - admittedly (polite limitation)

wenigstens - at least (weakening of an assertion)

zumindest - at least (weakening of an assertion)

assertive

aber - but

(und) doch - but

dennoch - nevertheless, nonetheless, still

dessenungeachtet - nevertheless, notwithstanding (this)

gleichwohl - nevertheless, nonetheless immerhin - all the same, anyhow, at any rate, at least, after all

indessen - however

nichtsdestoweniger - nevertheless, nonetheless

trotzdem - nevertheless

restrictive

 

 

insofern - in this respect

insoweit - in this respect

reason or consequence

reason

denn - for

nähmlich - namely, to wit

ja - now that

eben - just, simply

doch - after all, anyway, all the same

 

cause

 

also - so, therefore

folglich - consequently, therefore

mithin - consequently, therefore

deshalb - consequently, therefore

deswegen - consequently, therefore

infolgedessen - consequently, therefore

somit - consequently, therefore

so . . . denn - therefore

demnach - therefore, accordingly

nun - (obs) since,

daher - that is why, hence

darum - that's why, because of that

deshalb - therefore

deswegen - therefore

infolgedessen - consequently, as a result (of that)

entsprechend - accordingly, correspondingly

daraufhin - as a result, thereupon

 

conditional

 

andernfalls - otherwise

sonst - otherwise, or (else)