Learning Taxonomies

Cognitive Domain  

Bloom's Taxonomy
Adapted from material created by Dr. Tim Sensing for his preaching class.

Bloom's Taxonomy
Nadda Dabbagh (author), Instructional Technology Program, George Mason University

Verbs that Express Learning Outcomes (Competencies)

Affective Domain

Krathwohl's Taxonomy
Adapted from material created by Dr. Tim Sensing for his preaching class.

Krathwohl's Taxonomy
Nadda Dabbagh (author), Instructional Technology Program, George Mason University

Psychonmotor Domain

Harrow's Taxonomy
Nadda Dabbagh (author), Instructional Technology Program, George Mason University

 

  


  

Cognitive Domain: Bloom's Taxonomy

Benjamin S. Bloom, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals (New York: David McKay, 1956).


Knowledge is defined as the remembering of previously learned material. This may involve the recall of a wide range material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is for the student to bring to mind the appropriate information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain.
Objectives: Know common terms, specific facts, methods, procedures, basic concepts, principles.
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: define, describe, identify, label, list, match, name, recall, reproduce, select, state.

Comprehension is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another (words to numbers), by interpreting material (explaining or summarizing), and by estimating future trends (predicting consequences or effects). These learning outcomes go one step beyond the simple remembering of material, and represent the lowest level of understanding.
Objectives: Understand facts and principles. Interpret verbal material, charts, graphs. Translate verbal material to mathematical formulas. Estimate future consequences implied by data. Justify method and procedures.
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: convert, defend, distinguish, estimate, explain, infer, paraphrase, predict, rewrite, summarize.

Application refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those under comprehension.
Objectives: Apply concepts and principles to new situations. Apply laws and theories to practical situations. Solve mathematical problems. Construct charts and graphs.
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: change, compute, demonstrate, discover, manipulate, prepare, produce, relate, show, use.

Analysis refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. This may include the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material. Differentiate.
Objectives: Recognize unstated assumptions and logical fallacies in reasoning. Distinguish between facts and inferences. Evaluate the relevancy of data. Analyze the organizational structure of a work.
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: break down, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, outline, point out, relate select, separate, subdivide.

Synthesis refers to the ability to put parts together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying information). Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns of structures. Integrate.
Objectives: Write a well-organized theme or give a well-organized speech. Propose a plan or create a new work or writing, music, art. Integrate learning from different areas into a plan to solve new problems. Formulate or develop new schemes for classifying.
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: compile, compose, create, devise, design, generate, modify, organize, plan, rearrange, reconstruct, relate, revise, rewrite, write.

Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given purpose. The judgments are to be based on definite criteria. These may be internal criteria (organization) or external criteria (relevance to the purpose), and the student may determine the criteria or be given them. Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they contain elements of all of the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria.

Objectives: Judge the logical consistency, the adequacy of conclusions, the value of a work by use of internal criteria, the value of a work by use of external standards.
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: appraise, compare, conclude, contrast, critique, justify, interpret, relate, support.

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 Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Development

Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. A description of the six levels as well as verb examples that represent intellectual activity are listed here.

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Knowledge is defined as remembering of previously learned material. This may involve the recall of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information. Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain.

    Verbs : arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state.

Comprehensionis defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another (words to numbers), by interpreting material (explaining or summarizing), and by estimating furture trends (predicting consequences or effects). These learning outcomes go one step beyond the simple remembering of material, and represent the lowest level of understanding.

Verbs: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate.

Application refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those under comprehension.Verbs: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write.

Analysis refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. This may include the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material.Verbs: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test.

Synthesis refers to the ability to put parts together to forma new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying information). Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures. Verbs: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write.

Evaluation is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given purpose. The judgements are to be based on definite criteria. These may be internal criteria (organization) or external criteria (relevance to the purpose) and the student may determine the criteria or be given them. Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they contain elements of all the other categories, plus conscious value judgements based on clearly defined criteria. Verbs: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate.

Reference : Major categories in the cognitive domain of the taxonomy of educational objectives (Bloom, 1956).

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Verbs that Express Learning Outcomes or Competencies

This list of verbs (adapted from Jerrold Kemp's "Shopping List of Verbs) is arranged according to Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning . Use this list to help you express distinct performance expectations you have of your students. In general, cognitive competency in a field begins with knowledge level learning and advances up the taxonomy to comprehension, application, and then the higher order skills involved in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation or problem solving.

Reference : Major categories in the cognitive domain of the taxonomy of educational objectives (Bloom, 1956).

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Knowledge
 


arrange
define
duplicate
know
label
list
match
memorize
name
order
quote
recognize
recall
repeat
reproduce
restate
retain

Comprehension
 


characterize
classify
complete
depict
describe
discuss
establish
explain
express
identify
illustrate
locate
recognize
report
relate
review
sort
translate

Application
 


administer
apply
calculate
choose
compute
conduct
demonstrate
dramatize
employ
implement
interpret
operate
perform
practice
prescribe
roleplay
sketch
solve


 

Analysis
 


analyze
appraise
categorize
compare
contrast
critique
diagram
differentiate
discriminate
distinguish
examine
experiment
explore
inventory
investigate
question
research
test

Synthesis
 


combine
compose
consolidate
construct
create
design
formulate
hypothesize
integrate
merge
organize
plan
propose
synthesize
systematize
theorize
unite
write

Evaluation


appraise
argue
assess
critique
defend
envision
estimate
evaluate
examine
grade
inspect
judge
justify
rank
rate
review
value

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Affective Domain - Krathwohl's Taxonomy

David, R. Krathwohl, Benjamin S. Bloom, and Bertram B. Masia. Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals . (New York: David McKay, 1964).


Receiving refers to the student's willingness to attend to particular phenomena of stimuli (classroom activities, textbook, music, etc.). From a teaching standpoint, it is concerned with getting, holding, and directing the student's attention. Learning outcomes in this area range from the simple awareness that a thing exists to selective attention on the part of the learner. Receiving represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the affective domain.
Objectives: Listen, show sensitivity, accept differences, attend closely.
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: ask, choose, describe, follow, give, hold, identify, reply, select, use.

Responding refers to active participation on the part of the student. At this level he or she not only attends to a particular phenomenon but also reacts to it in some way. Learning outcomes in this area may emphasize acquiescence in responding (reads assigned material), willingness to respond (voluntarily reads beyond assignment), or satisfaction in responding (reads for pleasure or enjoyment). The higher levels of this category include those instructional objectives that are commonly classified under "interest"; that is, those that stress the seeking out and enjoyment of particular activities.
Objectives: Obey rules, complete expectations, participate, volunteer, show interest, enjoy.
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: assist, conform, greet, help, perform, present, read, select, tell, write.

Valuing is concerned with the worth or value a student attaches to a particular object, phenomenon, or behavior. This ranges in degree from the simpler acceptance of a value (desires to improve group skills) to the more complex level of commitment (assumes responsibility for the effective functioning of the group). Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values, but clues to these values are expressed in the student's overt behavior. Learning outcomes in this area are concerned with behavior that is consistent and stable enough to make the value clearly identifiable. Instructional objectives that are commonly classified under "attitudes" and "appreciation" would fall into this category.
Objectives: Demonstrate belief in, appreciate, show concern, demonstrate problem-solving attitude, demonstrate commitment.
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: complete, explain, follow, form, initiate, invite, join, justify, propose, share.

Organization is concerned with bringing together different values, resolving conflicts between them, and beginning the building of an internally consistent value system. Thus the emphasis is on comparing, relating, and synthesizing values. Learning outcomes may be concerned with the conceptualization of a value (recognizes the responsibility of each individual for improving human relations) or with the organization of a value system (develops a vocational plan that satisfies his or her need for both economic security and social service). Instructional objectives relating to the development of a philosophy of life would fall into this category.
Objectives: Recognize need for balance, recognize role of systematic planning in problem solving, accept responsibility, accept own strengths and limitations, formulate plan for harmony with others.
Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: adhere, alter, arrange, combine, generalize, identify, integrate, modify, order, organize, prepare, relate, synthesize.

Characterization by a value or value set. The individual has a value system that has controlled his or her behavior for a sufficiently long time for him or her to develop a characteristic "life-style." Thus the behavior is pervasive, consistent, and predictable. Learning outcomes at this level cover a broad range of activities, but the major emphasis is on the fact that the behavior is typical or characteristic of the student. Instructional objectives that are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal, social, emotional) would be appropriate here.
Objectives: Display safety consciousness, demonstrate self-reliance, practice cooperation and interdependence, show objectivity in problem solving, demonstrate punctuality and self-discipline.


Verbs for expressing learning outcomes: act, display, influence, listen, modify, perform, practice, propose, qualify, question, serve, solve, use, verify.

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Krathwohl's Taxnomy of Affective Domain

Krathwohl's affective domain taxonomy is perhaps the best known of any of the affective taxonomies. "The taxonomy is ordered according to the principle of internalization. Internalization refers to the process whereby a person's affect toward an object passes from a general awareness level to a point where the affect is 'internalized' and consistently guides or controls the person's behavior (Seels & Glasgow, 1990, p. 28)."

 

Receiving is being aware of or sensitive to the existence of certain ideas, material, or phenomena and being willing to tolerate them. Examples include: to differentiate, to accept, to listen (for), to respond to.

Responding is committed in some small measure to the ideas, materials, or phenomena involved by actively responding to them. Examples are: to comply with, to follow, to commend, to volunteer, to spend leisure time in, to acclaim.

Valuing is willing to be perceived by others as valuing certain ideas, materials, or phenomena. Examples include: to increase measured proficiency in, to relinquish, to subsidize, to support, to debate.

Organization is to relate the value to those already held and bring it into a harmonious and internally consistent philosophy. Examples are: to discuss, to theorize, to formulate, to balance, to examine.

Characterization by value or value set is to act consistently in accordance with the values he or she has internalized. Examples include: to revise, to require, to be rated high in the value, to avoid, to resist, to manage, to resolve.

Krathwohl, D.R., Bloom, B.S., and Masia, B.B. (1964). Taxonomy of educational objectives: Handbook II: Affective domain. New York: David McKay Co.

Seels and Glasgow (1990). Exercises in instructional design. Columbus OH: Merrill Publishing Company.

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Knowledge
 


arrange
define
duplicate
know
label
list
match
memorize
name
order
quote
recognize
recall
repeat
reproduce
restate
retain

Comprehension
 


characterize
classify
complete
depict
describe
discuss
establish
explain
express
identify
illustrate
locate
recognize
report
relate
review
sort
translate

Application
 


administer
apply
calculate
choose
compute
conduct
demonstrate
dramatize
employ
implement
interpret
operate
perform
practice
prescribe
roleplay
sketch
solve


 

Analysis
 


analyze
appraise
categorize
compare
contrast
critique
diagram
differentiate
discriminate
distinguish
examine
experiment
explore
inventory
investigate
question
research
test

Synthesis
 


combine
compose
consolidate
construct
create
design
formulate
hypothesize
integrate
merge
organize
plan
propose
synthesize
systematize
theorize
unite
write

Evaluation


appraise
argue
assess
critique
defend
envision
estimate
evaluate
examine
grade
inspect
judge
justify
rank
rate
review
value

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 Harrow's Taxonomy of Psychomotor Domain

Anita Harrow's taxonomy for the psychomotor domain is organized according to the degree of coordination including involuntary responses as well as learned capabilities. Simple reflexes begin at the lowest level of the taxonomy, while complex neuromuscular coordination make up the highest levels (Seels & Glasgow, 1990).

 

Reflex movements are actions elicited without learning in response to some stimuli. Examples include: flexion, extension, stretch, postural adjustments.
 

Basic fundamental movement are inherent movement patterns which are formed by combining of reflex movements and are the basis for complex skilled movements. Examples are: walking, running, pushing, twisting, gripping, grasping, manipulating.

Perceptual refers to interpretation of various stimuli that enable one to make adjustments to the environment. Visual, auditory, kinesthetic, or tactile discrimination. Suggests cognitive as well as psychomotor behavior. Examples include: coordinated movements such as jumping rope, punting, or catching.

Harrow, A.J. (1972). A taxonomy of the psychomotor domain. New York: David McKay Co.

Seels and Glasgow (1990). Exercises in instructional design. Columbus OH: Merrill Publishing Company.

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Learning Studio: Year One
The Learning Studio opened its doors to the campus last March. Here is a look at some of the stories from year one.